Tour 3

(Frederick, Md.)-Leesburg-Middleburg-Warrenton-Culpeper-Orange-Palmyra-Farmville-Clarksville-(Oxford, N.C.). US 15. Maryland Line to North Carolina Line, 239.8 m.

Hard-surfaced roadbed, chiefly asphalt.

Southern Ry. parallels route between Warrenton and Orange, Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. between Orange and Dillwyn, Southern Ry. between Keysville and North Carolina Line.

All types of accommodations except along the southern half of route, where only tourist homes and small hotels in the infrequent towns are available.

US 15 runs almost due south in Virginia. The upper section traverses open farming country close to the western edge of the Piedmont Plateau, within sight of the Blue Ridge foothills. Woodland predominates in the central third of its course, and in the lower third tobacco fields predominate.

Section a. POTOMAC RIVER to WARRENTON; 51 m. US 15

US 15 winds past the green sides of Catoctin Mountains, a low outlying range of the Blue Ridge, and traverses broad rolling country, which slopes toward the foothills and for nearly 100 miles varies little in type. Since 1900 this section has attracted wealthy Northerners interested in raising and training blooded horses. Farms have been turned into horse-training establishments; ante-bellum houses have been restored as seasonal homes; hunt clubs, horse shows, and racing meets that flourished before the war have been revived; and sleepy towns have taken on new and prosperous life.

US 15 crosses the Maryland Line, 0 m., on the south bank of the Potomac River at a point 18 miles south of Frederick, Md. (see Maryland Guide).

In the Potomac is HEATER'S ISLAND, first called Conoy Island for the Piscataway Indian tribe (of the Algonkin family) that bore the Iroquois name of Conoy at the time of its migration from Maryland. An ally of Colonial Maryland against the hostile Senecas (Susquehannas) and Iroquois, this obscure but important tribe, reduced to the confines of a reservation in 1669, was by 1685 'miserably poor and low.' Persecuted by Iroquois and believing that Maryland intended complete annihilation the tribe looked across the Potomac for asylum. In 1697 the Piscataways, under their new name, moved to Virginia. Two years later they established themselves on this island, building a large fort, with 18 cabins inside the enclosure and 9 without. Maryland, realizing her loss, entreated the Indians to return, but the tribe remained in its new home. About 1705 an epidemic of smallpox descended on the island, causing the Indians to leave--forever.

CHESTNUT HILL (R), 1.8 m., a spacious two-and-a-half-story house of stone with gabled roof and long two-story portico, is on a shaded knoll with the green Catoctins in the background. Chestnut Hill was built about 1800 by Samuel Clapham, whose great-uncle, Josias, acquired land here in 1739. Samuel Clapham's father, Josias II, was a notable figure in local affairs-militia officer and member of the assembly (1770-88) and of the Revolutionary conventions. He built the Catoctin Iron Works and provided water power for its operation by cutting a 500-foot channel from the Potomac through the rocky end of what is still called Furnace Mountain. During the Revolution his little gun factory with '5 or 6 hands' turned out 'good musquets'for the Continental army.

At 5 m. is a junction with County 663.

Left on this road to County 657,1.5 m.; L. here to the NOLAND HOUSE: (R), 4.4 m., a large building of red brick. It is believed to have been built about 1770 by Thomas Noland, whose ferry across the Potomac near here was a link in the old Carolina Road. This road, important in the history of early Colonial settlement, was first the 'Plain path' between Susquehannock villages in Pennsylvania and Occaneechee Island in the Staunton, and a route of the Iroquois who avoided Tidewater settlements in their sallies southward. Many Scotch-Irish and German immigrants followed this route before crossing the Blue Ridge to settle in the great Valley. Soon pack trains and lumbering Conestoga wagons of pioneers journeyed toward the great meadows of Kentucky. Later trade flowed northward with droves of cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep bound for Northern markets. By 1842 horse- and cattle-thieving had given it the name of 'Rogues' Road,' and necessitated an act of assembly requiring drovers to carry evidence of having bought their herds.

ROCKLAND (L), 8.1 m., a two-and-a-half-story house of deep red brick, with dormers and a formal porch having double columns below a deep cornice, has an unpretentious charm. The broad-arched front doorway is noteworthy for its graceful fanlights and sidelights. Rockland was built about 1822 by General George Rust (1788-1857) on a plantation that swept back northward to the Potomac River.

Imposing, white-pillared SELMA (R), 8.2 m., in which are incorporated parts of an earlier house, was built about 1900. The farm was part of the 10,000-acre tract bought about 1741 by Mrs. Ann Thomson Mason, whose eldest son was George Mason of Gunston Hall (see Tour 1a). The first house at Selma was built by the grandson of 'Madam Mason,' General Armistead Thomson Mason (1787-1819), United States Senator. General Mason was killed by his cousin and neighbor, Colonel John Mason McCarty, in a duel that grew out of political rivalry. Mason had ignored his cousin's challenge and the affair had almost blown over, when, returning by stagecoach from Richmond, he met his old friend, General Andrew Jackson, who advised Mason not to let the challenge pass. McCarty, who had cooled, tried to avert the encounter by making ridiculous suggestions for carrying it out. However, Mason wrote that he 'was extremely anxious to terminate once and forever this quarrel.' To avoid Virginia's recently enacted anti-dueling law, the affair took place near Bladensburg, Maryland, February 6, 1819. Mason was killed and McCarty was dangerously wounded.

At 8.9 m. is a junction with County 655.

Left on this road to WHITE'S FORD, 1.3 m., where in September 1862 Confederate troops crossed the Potomac.

RASPBERRY PLAIN (R), 9.2 m., is a modern successor to the first house on 'the raspberry plain' built by one Joseph Dixon, a blacksmith, who acquired title to 322 acres from Lord Fairfax in 1731. In 1754 Dixon sold his 'houses, buildings, orchard, ways and watercourses' to Aeneas Campben, who in 1757 became the first sheriff of Loudoun County. The new county having no buildings, Campbell is said to have built a little brick jail with stocks and pillory in his yard.

The SITE OF GOOSE CREEK CHAPEL (R) is at 9.6 m. This little 'chappel of Ease' was erected about 1733 for parishioners of Truro parish living above Goose Creek.'

SPRINGWOOD (R) 9.7 m., built of brick about 1840, has had extensive frame additions, all painted white. The first house on the estate ' its name derived from the Great Spring near by, was built by Francis Aubrey about 1728. Builder of the present house was Captain George Washington Ball of the Confederate army, grandson of Colonel Burgess Ball.

By a junction at 10.6 m. is a small granite MONUMENT commemorating the Battle of Ball's Bluff, which took place about one mile eastward. Early in the morning of October 21, 1861, a small Union force crossed the Potomac from Maryland and drove back a similar force of Confederates. Reinforcements from fortifications by Potomac fords turned the tide. The invaders, pushed back over the steep bluff above the river, were slaughtered by volleys of gunfire poured down from the crest. A bayonet charge completed the rout. Among the wounded was a 20-year-old first lieutenant of the Twentieth Massachusetts Infantry, Oliver Wendell Holmes, afterward Associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. A national cemetery, with rows of graves marked 'unknown,' is on the bluff.

LEESBURG, 12 m. (313 alt., 1,650 pop.), seat of Loudoun County, has developed about the courthouse square, where white-pillared buildings are shaded by elms and oaks; old houses of stone and brick, with ivy-clad walls, fanlighted doorways, and massive knockers, still sit placidly between small business places on two sides of the green. Smaller houses, close to the sidewalk, have been disguised with new store fronts; and close to the sidewalks along side streets are squat, slant-roofed, cottages with dormers. The first settlement here, log houses huddled at the intersection of the Carolina and Ridge Roads, was called Georgetown. But when 'proper streets' were laid off on lands of Captain Nicholas Minor near the new courthouse, the 1758 assembly ordered the town incorporated under the name of Leesburg, probably for Francis Lightfoot Lee and Philip Ludwell Lee, local landholders who were among the town's first trustees.

The COURTHOUSE, built in 1894, is a somewhat ornate red brick structure with white Corinthian columns supporting a pediment cupola with clock and belfry. On the courthouse lawn are the Confederate memorial, a handsome and alert soldier on a block of roughhewn granite, and a stone shaft bearing names of county soldiers who died in the World War. Loudoun County was created in 1757 from the northwestern end of Fairfax County, as settlement spread westward. Its name is probably the only Colonial honor given John Campbell, fourth Earl of Loudoun, who in 1756-57 was in command of British forces in America and titular governor of Virginia, although he never came to the colony.

The COUNTY OFFICE BUILDING, a rectangular, two-and-a-half-story structure of red brick with a full-width portico and simple cornice was built about 1844 as the Leesburg Academy, a boys' school.

Leesburg is at the junction with State 7 (see Tour 13).

Right from Leesburg on County 699 to County 698, 0.7 m.; R. here to the entrance (R) Of MORVEN PARK (private), 1 m., home of Westmoreland Davis, governor of Virginia (1918-22). Beyond lodge gates and nearly a mile of tree-lined drive, the large, two-story house extends to an unusual length and is ornamented by a Doric portico. Cattle stray over the 1,000 parklike acres of the estate.

Westmoreland Davis (1859- ) is a lawyer, agriculturist, and publisher. His administration as governor was distinguished by a new emphasis upon general welfare and the formulation of a progressive social program in Virginia.

OATLANDS (L), 18.7 m., a large mansion built in 1800-03 by George Carter, is visible through a screen of woodland. A tall white portico with Corinthian columns stands before the central and highest of the boxlike sections of the brick structure. The sides are extended in octagonal bays, and the whole composition is graceful in spite of angularity. The land was bought by Robert ('Councillor') Carter of Nomini Hall for his son George. George Carter was his own architect and he also laid out the vast terraced gardens and boxwood avenues.

OAK HILL (private), 21.8 m., built (R) in 1820-23 by James Monroe (see Tour 23A), is a brick mansion painted a creamy yellow. It stands at the head of an avenue of trees. A main block with gabled roof is extended laterally by flat-roofed wings with gabled half-stories along their centers. A double, curving flight of steps with iron railings rises to the recessed entrance-beautifully severe with delicately traced fanlights and sidelights. The wings terminate in small porticoes, and a huge Roman Doric portico on a high foundation overlooks the garden and rolling country southward to the Bull Run Mountains. The simple interior is ornamented by two very handsome marble mantels sent by La Fayette from Europe.

Construction of Oak Hill was begun during Monroe's first term as President, and it was built with the assistance of James Hoban, Irish architect of the White House and a protege of Thomas Jefferson. The building shows the influence of Jefferson, and it may even have been based on plans Jefferson is known to have made for Ash Lawn, but which were never used there. The mansion was greatly enlarged in 1923.

Monroe spent much time here, making trips to and from the Capital on horseback and carrying state papers in his saddlebags. After retiring from public life in 1825, he remained here until Mrs. Monroe's death five years later, when he went to live with his daughter in New York.

At 23.8 m. is a junction with US 50 (see Tour 12); R. here on US 5. A new 22-mile section of US 15 connects this point with Warrenton (see below).

ALDIE, 24.9 m. (175 pop.), with a church, an old grist mill, a schoolhouse, stores, and dwellings, took its name from the former home of Charles Fenton Mercer (1758-1857), member of the Virginia House of Delegates, brigadier general in the War of 1812 and member of Congress. The MERCER HOUSE stands in an oak grove above the highway at the center of the village.

The SITE OF THE HOUSE OF JOHN CHAMPE is at 26.4 m. Champe was the 23-year-old Revolutionary soldier, chosen in 1780 by Major General 'Light Horse Harry' Lee, at Washington's request for a volunteer to go on the hazardous mission of desertion to the British in a plan to capture Benedict Arnold and frustrate a suspected conspiracy involving Continental officers. Washington's words to Lee were, 'Whoever comes forward . . . will lay me under great obligations personally, and in behalf of the United States I will reward him amply.' Secrecy thrown about Champe's movements almost led to his undoing as he left the Continental camp on the Hudson River. His comrades, not aware of his errand, pursued him with vigorous realism, and he escaped their fire only by abandoning his horse and hiding along the river bank until rescued by British gunboats. Champe was able to join Arnold's dragoons, but Washington's plans came to nothing, for the night Arnold was to have been trapped the British were ordered to take ship for Virginia to join Cornwallis.

MIDDLEBURG, 30.2 m. (300 POP.), once 'the middle burg' and overnight stop on the stagecoach journey between Alexandria and Winchester, has taken on new life since the turn of the century as a center of a community where horses and hounds dominate business and social life. Old stone and brick houses, dormered cottages, and an old stone inn survive beside chain groceries, garages, filling stations, a bank, a motion picture theater, and antique shops.

Right from Middleburg on County 626 to FOXCROFT, 3.8 m., a girls' preparatory school, occupying seven brick buildings.

In Middleburg is a junction with County 626; L. here on County 626.

THE PLAINS, 38.7m. (565 alt., 372 pop.), has a lumber mill and stores. Here is a junction with State 55 (see Tour 4A) and State 17; straight ahead on State 17.

At 49.8 m. State 17 forks, offering Alternate State 17 (L) through Warrenton.

WARRENTON,51m. (635 alt., 1,651 POP.) (see Tour 22), is at the junction with US 29-211 (see Tour 4a), US 211 (see Tour 22), and US 15-29.

Section b. WARRENTON to CULPEPER; 24.9 m. US 15-29

US 15-29 runs through prosperous dairying country dotted with horselovers' estates. Plantations with Colonial history and battlefield sites add interest to the scene. The northern end of the route is part of the old turnpike between Falmouth and Winchester.

South of WARRENTON, 0 m., is OPAL, 7 m., at a junction with State 17 (see Tour 1a).

At 11 m. is a junction with State 295 (see Tour 4a).

REMINGTON, 13.1 m. (300 pop.), known during the War between the States as Rappahannock Station, is a rural center.

The PELHAM MEMORIAL (R), 16.2 m. is a marble shaft honoring Confederate Major John Pelham, 24-year-old chief of General J.E.B.Stuart's Horse Artillery, who was mortally wounded March 17, 1863, at Kelly's Ford, four miles southeast. A granite marker at 17.3 m. commemorates the Battle of Brandy Station. On June 9, 1863, Stuart's cavalry, gathered near here for a review by the General Staff, was attacked by Union cavalry under General Alfred Pleasonton. For several hours the heaviest cavalry fighting of the war raged around this hill. About 10,000 troops were engaged on each side. Besides being the first cavalry battle, this was the first engagement that Union cavalry provoked. Having come over in dangerous force, they inflicted heavy damage and left in good order. Stuart, although forced back locally, kept his fighting forces together, held the field, and was able to screen the movement of Lee's divisions northward. The Federals lost 936, the Confederates 523.

BRANDY STATION, 18.4 m., is a small trading center by a railway station.

CULPEPER, 24.9 m. (423 alt., 2,379 POP.), seat of Culpeper County, is the trade center of a well-to-do farming area. Rows of brick and frame buildings line a long Main Street, backing on tree-shaded residential areas.

A hill overlooking the western side of the town was the muster place in 1775 for the Culpeper Minute Men, volunteers from Culpeper, Orange, and Fauquier Counties. With a coiled rattlesnake and the legends, 'Don't tread on me' and 'Liberty or Death' on their flag, fringed deerskin trousers and hunting shirts, bucktails flying from their hats and scalping knives and tomahawks at their belts, they had a warlike appearance as they marched to Williamsburg to answer Governor Patrick Henry's call for volunteers in 1777. John Marshall, statesman and Chief justice of the U.S.Supreme Court, was a youthful lieutenant in the Fauquier company of his father, Captain Thomas Marshall.

Confederates camped not far away in the winter of 1862-63, and officers stayed at the old Virginia Hotel. That polished army boots bound for social events might escape the quagmire, a boardwalk was built across Main Street. Wounded from the battles of Cedar Mountain, from Kelly's Ford, and from Brandy Station were brought to churches, homes, and vacant buildings here. Later, Union officers made headquarters at the Virginia Hotel, and soldiers were billeted in public buildings; General Grant and his staff stayed at the hotel during April 1864.

The COURTHOUSE, built about 1870, is a brick structure painted a vivid red, with ornate white portico and cupola. Culpeper County was created in 1748 from the great territory of Orange. Culpeper is at the southern junction with US 29 (see Tour 4b).

Left from Culpeper on State 3, an asphalt road, to Germanna Bridge over the Rapidan, 14.4 m.; L. 0.7 m. on a dirt road to the site of GERMANNA, where a crumbling stone chimney and half -buried foundations are reminders of Virginia's first industrial village. Here lived the miners brought from the German Palatinate by Governor Alexander Spotswoodin 1714. When thegovernor's efforts to have iron deposits developed as a public enterprise failed, he lent a willing ear to the private schemes of adventurers, one of whom was the Swiss Baron von Graffenreid. But by the time the Germans arrived in the spring of 1714, von Graffenreid had returned to Switzerland, and the governor was beset by difficulties. Fearful of the hostile council's learning of his 'risque of Censure ... for transporting Forreigners into these parts,' he proposed having them settled at this point as a barrier against Indian attacks. The council ordered a road cleared and two cannon dragged through'the wild woods,'and set up on a'stockade of stakes stuck in the ground ... and of a substance to bear out a musket shot.' That summer the thrifty Germans had 'nine houses, built all in a row, and before every house, about twenty feet distant from it, . . . small sheds built for their hogs and hens, so that the hogsties and houses make a street.' In 1720 this fron tier village became the seat of the newly-created Spotsylvania County. By 1722, when the governor retired, he had, through shrewd grants to subordinates to be held in trust for his own use, accumulated more than 85,000 acres of 'excellent Land among ye Little Mountains.' Here he lived in style suited to his lordly tastes. When the Germans moved farther north, slaves worked the iron enterprises, supervised by a 'master.' Here was his'enchanted castle,' described by William Byrd II, with its terraced gardens, marbIe fountain, spacious drawing rooms 'elegantly set off with pier glasses' and where 'a brace of tame deer ran familiarly through the house.'

In 1732 the little county seat was abandoned for the growing town of Fredericksburg. Discouraged by a Parliament fearful that Colonial manufactures would interfere with British exports, the industrial activities dwindled after Spotswood's death in 11740.

At 19.4 m. on State 3 is junction with State 20 (see Tour 10).

Section c. CULPEPER to SPROUSE'S CORNER; 80.8 m. US 15

Orange is another center for sporting country life, but below Gordonsville the forest closes about the route; farms are to be seen only occasionally; and peaks of the distant mountains are frequently visible against the western horizon.

South of CULPEPER, 0 m., is GREENWOOD (L), 1.3 m., an attractive, rambling, story-and-a-half frame house with low wings, painted white. It stands far back from the highway among tall trees.

CEDAR MOUNTAIN, two miles away (L) at 5.1 m., gave its name to the battle of August 9, 1862, between General T.J.Jackson and his old antagonist of the Valley, General Nathaniel P. Banks. Jackson, having left Richmond in advance of Lee's army, with the intention of watching Pope until Lee could join him, found Banks advancing with 9,ooo men. Attacking Jackson's 23,ooo, Banks was defeated. Other Federal divisions arrived late in the evening and Jackson withdrew southward to await Lee (see Tour 10).

At 14.9 m. is a junction with County 622.

Left here to WOODBERRY FOREST, 1 m., a boys' preparatory school, established in 1888. The school occupies a group of modern, white-pillared, red brick buildings at the head of a terraced slope above the Rapidan River. The campus was the Woodberry Fore~t plantation of General William Madison, brother of President James Madison. Madison's home, The Residence, is a one-story white frame structure built about 1783 among magnificent oaks.
At 17.9 m. on US 15 is a junction with County 633.

Left here to County 632, 0.4 m.; R. 0.2 m. to MONTEBELLO (L), a dignified mansion of dark red brick behind the great Tuscan columns of a white, two-story portico. The beauty of the old house, which overlooks rolling country, is enhanced by masses of boxwood, magnolia, and other evergreens, and by a formal garden.

In 1750 Benjamin Cave built the house that has had numerous additions and alterations.

ORANGE, 19.3 m. 524 alt., 1,381 POP), seat of Orange County and trade center of a fertile agricultural area, lies on steep hillsides. Narrow, irregular Main Street, thickly-built near the courthouse green, rises at each end on hills where are attractive homes. On Saturday evenings, when the country 'comes to town,' there is barely room to breathe on Main Street.

The long-established farm trade and the business of the county have been increased by the establishment of a silk mill, a wood-flooring mill, and an assembly plant for metal office equipment.

The brick COURTHOUSE, built in 1858 and now painted gray, with deep overhanging eaves and a square central tower, is a Victorian departure from the red brick, white-columned type of courthouse traditional in rural Virginia. Orange County, created in 1734, was named for the Prince of Orange, who became England's William III. As originally constituted, the county boundaries were loosely defined and court was held in various places until 1748, when Orange was divided to create Culpeper County, and the courthouse, then 'absurdly near the very edge of the county,' was ordered moved to a more central site.

ST.THOMAS's CHURCH, on a box-bordered lawn, has a recessed portico with white columns and is surmounted by a white cupola. It was built in 1833.

Orange is at a junction with State 20 (see Tour 10).

Left from Orange on County 615 to GREENFIELD (L), 0.8 m., well back from the highway in a grove of trees. The house is of red brick with the usual white-columned portico, and has some good interior trim. It was erected about 1825.

The JAMES WADDELL MONUMENT (R), 27.4 m., a granite block, is near the probable site of the 'ruinous old wooden house' in which Waddell, a blind Presbyterian evangelist, preached between 1785 and his death 20 years later. In 1803 Waddell was described as a tall, thin patriarch of supernatural appearance. His oratory could produce wailing and gnashing of teeth and had the power to quiet the storm it had created. William Wirt made Waddell's eloquence the subject of an incident in his book, Letters of the British Spy.

GORDONSVILLE, 28.4 m. (442 alt., 46 2 POP.) (see Tour 9), is at a junction with US 33, which coincides with US 15 for a few miles (see Tour 9); at 33.3 m. is the southern junction with US 33.

ZION CROSS ROADS, 40.9 m., is at the junction with US 250 (see Tour 17a).

PALMYRA, 48.9 m. (145 pop.), is the seat of Fluvanna County. The COURTHOUSE (1838), an attractive small red brick building with four white Doric columns beneath a pediment, shares the village green with lawyers' tiny brick offices. The ancient two-story COUNTY JAIL, of field stone, faces the courthouse across a rambling lane; flat wrought-iron strips bar its heavy windows. Fluvanna County was created in 1777 from part of Albemarle County, and its name, Anne River, is a tribute to the popular queen.

DIXIE, 55.9 m., is at a junction with State 6 (see Tour 23).

Near FORK UNION, 57.7 m. (200 POP.), is overrun during the school term with boys in uniform from FORK UNION MILITARY ACADEMY, a preparatory school founded in 1898. The brick and concrete buildings in pseudo-Gothic style are at the edge of town. 'The Academy is remote,' its catalogue avers, 'from the evil influence of the small towns and the dangers of the large City.'

At 61.6 m. is a junction with the private Bremo Plantation Road.

Right on this road through a large tract of field and woodland extending to the banks of the James. These acres were organized into a plantation about 1803 by General John Hartwell Cocke (1780-1866), who built the three large houses on the estate. Warm advocate of popular education, he helped Jefferson and Cabell found the University of Virginia and served as chairman of the building committee. Intemperate in youth, he became a teetotaler and was elected first president of the American Temperance Union, organized in 1836. He thoroughly denounced slavery as 'the great cause of all the great evils of our lands,' educated his own Negroes to useful trades, and then emancipated those who seemed fit for citizenship, sending them off to the Liberian colony. BREMO RECESS (open daily, adm. 50¢), 0.2 m., is a brick house (R) of moderate size almost hidden by trees. It is painted yellow and has tall lancet openings and cusped gables characteristic of the Jacobean style. Between house and road sprawl former stables, now falling into decay. Recess was the Cocke family home until the mansion nearer the river was completed.(ed. note, 10/29/01: Bremo Recess is no longer open to the public.)

LOWER BREMO (private), 1.9 m., is (L) a cream-colored brick house with clustered chimneys and pseudo-Jacobean gables. It was built about 1843 by General Cocke for his son, Dr.Cary Cocke. A stone outbuilding near by was probably a 'hunting lodge' built soon after 1725 by Richard Cocke, who held the grant.

BREMO, 2.3 m. (open 9-5 daily, April 15 to Nov. 1; adm. $1; to grounds only, 50¢), is the main mansion, and one of Thomas Jefferson's most successful creations. The well proportioned building with its massive Roman Doric portico in striking relief against rose-colored brick walls stands among great oaks and beeches behind a shallow ha-ha wall that sweeps in a semicircle between two pavilions. Crowning the one-story walls is a full entablature beneath an open roof balustrade. Small side porticoes face terraces beyond which are the pavilions. These dependencies, like the central block, have porticoes on the garden facade and a full basement story on the south and are connected by a passageway on the lower level. The garden facade is broken by a recess holding a veranda, with pilasters and two columns in antis above a basement arcade. The wide lawn drops away to fields where the outlines of a formal garden are traceable. (ed. note, 10/29/01: Bremo is no longer open to the public.)

The classical interior is designed in Jeffersonian style. The entrance hall and two large chambers are cubical, with 2o-foot ceilings and cornices four feet deep. Two bedrooms have bed alcoves. In the drawing room is a fine Adam mantel of Carrara marble. A pair of staircases in the lateral passageways are narrow, like those of Monticello. From the marble-floored dining room on the lower garden level, a revolving door carries shelves to simplify the change of courses.

Construction of Bremo was begun in 1815 and continued for four years. Here General Lee's family stayed during part of the War between the States.

Among the many outbuildings is the main barn, a palatial structure of stone on the plan of a Greek cross, with a portico forming one arm; at the intersection of the gable ridges is a belfry, in which still hangs a convent bell presented by La Fayette. Near the entrance gate stands a cast-iron TEA POT that formerly stood in a Doric temple at Temperance Spring close to the old canal. General Cocke erected the temple as an inspiration to canal boat travelers, who were reputed to have used its crystal waters to mix with stronger liquids.

On the north bank of the James River is BREMO BLUFF, 62.8 m. (82 POP.), a handful of houses and a railroad station near a hydroelectric plant.

At 65.9 m. is a junction with County 675.

Right here to ARVONIA, 0.8 m., a village where huddled frame houses are overshadowed by huge piles of waste slate. Seven quarries are in operation by the state in this area.

Around DILLWYN, 78.3 m. (645 alt., 442 pop.), are acres of lumber-drying yards, piled high with railroad ties and pulpwood logs.

SPROUSE'S CORNER, 80.8 m., is a cluster of dwellings, store, and filling station at a junction with US 60 (see Tour 8b).

Section d. SPROUSE'S CORNER to JUNCTION WITH US 360; 39.5 m. US 15.

This section of US 15 passes through long stretches of hilly woodland and open tobacco fields.

South of SPROUSE'S CORNER, 0 m., at 4.6 m. is a junction with a dirt road.

Left on this road, which winds through woods to the top of WILLIS MOUNTAIN, 1 M. (1,200 alt.), a lone peak.

SHEPPARDS, 11.2 m., is a store and a few houses at a crossroads. On the night of April 7, 1865, Lee's army passed here in retreat westward. While two corps of Grant's army closely pursued, two other corps forged west from Farmville to block Lee's advance toward Appomattox. Near Sheppards on the evening of April 7 Lee received Grant's note suggesting surrender.

Right from Sheppards on County 636 to NEW STORE, 4.6 m., where Peter Francisco kept a tavern after the Revolution. Francisco's life history is richly embellished with legend. His origin was obscure, but historians believe e was kidnapped in Spain. Left near City Point in 1765, he was later adopted by Judge Anthony Winston. When the Revolution broke out, Francisco, then only about 16 years old but more than 6 feet tall and of great muscular strength, joined the Continental army. He distinguished himself by his courage in numerous battles. Stories of how he pulled a 1,100-pound cannon up a hill and of a special sword made to fit his great hands cling to his army record. His most notable feat was at West's Ordinary (see Tour 20b). His reputation grew as he disposed of all comers rash enough to dispute his prowess. In records of his life it is told that he once threw a man from the ground onto the roof of a house. A stranger, who announced to Francisco that he had come from Kentucky to decide which was the better man, was tossed over a fence. A moment later Francisco threw the intruder's horse after his master.

At 15.7 m. on US 15 is a junction with US 460.

Right here to APPOMATTOX, 24.2 m. (704 pop.), a scattered community typical of Virginia county seats established late in the nineteenth century. Frame and brick dwellings circle a main street closely packed with nondescript store fronts. The town is the local tobacco market and ships lumber.

Near the center in a fieldlike green is the COURTHOUSE, a one-story brick building on a high stone basement. Appomattox County was formed in 1845 but the courthouse was not erected here until 1892.

Right from Appomattox 0.4 m. on State 131 to State 24; R. here 2.4 m. to OLD APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE, now consisting of a few modern residences, several dilapidated buildings, two monuments, and a small cemetery. Near the old courthouse is the SITE OF WILMER McLEAN's HOUSE, where the Confederate surrender took place.

On the evening of April 8, 1865, Lee's weary army encamped here-two corps, under Longstreet and Gordon, starved and ill-equipped, flanked by four times its number at the beginning of its retreat and surrounded by many times its number here, depleted by desertions, and convinced that further resistance was futile since two more Federal corps were in their rear.

At 8:30 on the morning of April 9, while sporadic fighting continued in front, General Lee accompanied only by his aide, Colonel Charles Marshall, rode to the rear to meet General Grant. Expecting the conference he had requested and intending to surrender, Lee received a letter from Grant, declining the interview. Lee replied with an offer to surrender. Grant, however, having changed his headquarters to a point some 15 miles away, did not receive Lee's offer until almost noon. Meanwhile, Lee was warned that a Federal attack had been ordered and that he must return to his own lines. General G. A. Custer, riding over the field demanding a surrender in the name of Sheridan, suffered rebukes from both Longstreet and Gordon; several hotheaded clashes threatened trucemaking efforts; and at a critical moment, General G. G. Meade, ill in an ambulance, was forced to assume the responsibility of declaring a truce. At about one o'clock Colonel Orville E. Babcock, of Grant's staff, arrived with word that Grant was hurrying to the field.

Soon the two generals met in McLean's parlor-Lee in a new uniform and dress trappings and Grant dusty, in fatigue dress, and without side arms. They had known each other slightly in years past. Once in Mexico years before, Lee had reprimanded Grant for his unkempt appearance. Now the tension was relieved by the casual conversation of old friends. It was General Lee who introduced a businesslike note into the conference by requesting General Grant to tell him the terms of surrender. After further conversation Grant wrote out the terms, and handed the paper to Lee. The officers and men were to be paroled and disqualified from taking up arms again until properly exchanged. Only public property was to be surrendered, and officers were to retain their side arms and horses. Lee was pleased. The cavalry and artillery horses, he said, were owned by the rank and file in the Confederate service, and would be of great help to the men when they got home. Grant gave orders to exempt these animals when they were claimed by their riders. Generously he ordered Sheridan to supply Lee's commissary with 25,000 rations. Then Grant apologized for the condition of his dress and lack of side arms, saying that he had been some distance from his headquarters and believed that Lee would rather receive him as he was than to be detained. After more conversation, the meeting ended. When firing of salutes and the playing of bands began in the Federal camps, Grant gave orders that all such demonstrations cease.

Another meeting took place, at Grant's request, the following day. Of this little is known except that Grant wished Lee to meet President Lincoln, in the belief that Lee's, Lincoln's, and his own influence would restore a condition of rest to the country. As the Confederate Government still existed, Lee declined the assumption of political prerogatives.

Grant set out for Washington on the evening of the 10th, and two days later Lee left for Richmond.

About 10,000 muskets were surrendered at Appomattox. About 28,000 men, including noncombatants, were paroled. The tragic, unnecessary war had come to an end; and another era, more tragic and equally unnecessary, was about to begin.

FARMVILLE, 19.9 m. (337 alt., 3,133 POP.), seat of Prince Edward County, is a progressive-looking town, with a long and busy Main Street, bulky tobacco warehouses, and red brick factories along the river. The town's retail trade is stimulated for several months of the year by the influx of students. Dark tobacco marketing and various small industries add to the local income.

On the afternoon of April 6, 1865, Lee's retreating army was attacked by Sheridan's cavalry and two corps of infantry at Sailor's Creek, 10, miles to the east. The Confederate rear was cut off, and 6,000 men and six generals were taken prisoners. The following morning the retreating army pushed westward.

PRINCE EDWARD COURTHOUSE, a small, brick structure built about 1873, stands back from the street, almost invisible among the business places. Prince Edward County was created in 1753 and named for Edward, Prince of Wales, younger brother of George III. The seat was moved from Worsham to Farmville in 1871.

The STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGE, in the center of the town, is housed in five modern three-story buildings of red brick with Ionic porticoes; they are connected by colonnaded passages. Before 1835 Martin's Gazeteer recorded '1 female school' here. By 1839 this school had become the Farmville Female Seminary, and in 1860 the Farmville Female College. The property passed to town authorities in 1884 and was turned over to the State for a 'female normal school.' The enrollment (1937-38) was 2,193.

In KINGSVILLE, 25.6 m., now a few modern dwellings, was born in 1787 Dr.John Peter Mettauer, internationally known surgeon and teacher. He was the son of Francois Joseph Mettauer, a physician attached to French troops billeted in this neighborhood after the battle of Yorktown. After graduating at Hampden-Sydney College and attending medical school in Philadelphia, the younger Mettauer taught medicine in his home. With this group as the nucleus, he established in 1848 the first medical department at Randolph-Macon College.

Right from Kingsville on State 133 to State 134, 0.8 m.; L. here 0.2 m. to HAMPDEN-SYDNEY COLLEGE. Vine-clad buildings of mellowed brick are scattered over a 250-acre campus, much of it a natural woodland. Hampden-Sydney Academy was established here by Presbyterian elders in 1776 and incorporated as a college in 1783. It is the second oldest college in Virginia. In 1937-38 the college had an enrollment Of 238.

WORSHAM, 26.7 m., a cluster of small buildings, was formerly Prince Edward Courthouse. The old jail (R), its massive stone walls crumbling, was built in 1789; and the former County Clerk's Office (L), now a dwelling, dates from 1820.

At 39.5 m. is a junction with US 36c, (see Tour 20b), which coincides with US 15 for 19.6 miles.

Section e. JUNCTION WITH US,360 to NORTH CAROLINA LINE; 43.6 m. US 15-360

Tobacco is seen increasingly as the route progresses south. As the money crop, tobacco leaves room for small attention to balancing crops of food and forage. At intervals are wide sections of pine and hardwoods.

South of the junction with US 360, 0 m., is KEYSVILLE, 1.6 m. (589 pop.), largest town of Charlotte County and a tobacco market.

WYLLIESBURG, 17.1 m., is a crossroads hamlet.

Right from Wylliesburg on County 607 to County 631, 1.8 m.; R. here to ROANOKE PLANTATION (R), 12.7 m., home of John Randolph of Roanoke (see Tour 10), representative in Congress 1799-1813, 1815-17, 1819-25; senator 1825-27; member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention 1829-30; and minister to Russia 1830. Though brilliant and forceful, John Randolph was definitely unbalanced all his life. He suffered from insomnia, stomach disorders, rheumatism, and probably died from tuberculosis. Apparently not clearly demented until after 1818, he was for years dangerously near the border of insanity. In Congress he shone as a caustic orator, terrifying his opponents and, for hours on end, flinging shafts of bitter eloquence upon his fascinated audience.

After 1810, unmarried and more and more given to eccentricity, he lived here in solitude, building two small houses, one of logs. About this time he added'of Roanoke' to his name to distinguish himself from a kinsman, who was known as 'Possum John.' Although he frequently lacked cash, at his death he owned 8,000 acres of land, 400 slaves, and a stud of blooded horses.

He died in Philadelphia May 24, 1833, while waiting to take a ship for England, and was buried at Roanoke with his face to the west in accordance with his request that he might keep an eye on Henry Clay. In 1879 his remains were removed to Richmond.

At 19.6 m. is BARNES JUNCTION, southern junction with US 360 (see Tour 20b).

PRESTWOULD (R), 34 m., is a mansion on a wooded plateau overlooking the Staunton Valley. Built about 1765 of native limestone cut into smooth blocks by plantation slaves, the house has the stout, rugged appearance of a frontier home. Its thick walls, two stories above a basement, rise to a hip roof covered with heavy copper shingles and pierced along the ridge by 10-foot chimneys. Small porches are river front and land front. Great, high-ceilinged rooms with carved marble mantels and deep window seats open from a central hall-holding a broad staircase.

Prestwould plantation was part of the 10-mile tract along the Roanoke River patented in 1730, by William Byrd II and called by him Blue Stone Castle. From his son, William Byrd III, the land passed as stakes in a three-day card game to Sir William Skipwith, grandson of Sir Gray Skipwith, who fled to Virginia during the Protectorate. Sir William's son, Sir Peyton Skipwith, built the house.

At 35.8 m. is a junction with US 58 (see Tour 7b), which coincides westward with US 15 to CLARKSVILLE, 36.7 m. (800 pop.) (see Tour 7b), at the western junction with US 58.

At 43.6 m. US 15 crosses the North Carolina Line, 17 miles north of Oxford (see North Carolina Guide).