Tour 16

Fredericksburg--King George--Montross--Warsaw--Lancaster--Kilmarnock--Westland; 104.5 m. State 3.

Asphalt-paved roadbed throughout. All types of accommodations.

State 3 traverses the Northern Neck, the peninsula between the Rappahannock and the Potomac. Occupations here vary from dairying and forestry in the upper section to truck farming, fishing, canning, and shipping in the lower. Along the waters are small summer resorts.

The route through farm lands and pine forests was first called the King's Highway for Robert 'King' Carter, who 'opened' it between the 'Lease Land' (Fredericksburg) and his seat, Corotoman. Along the way are old seats of distinguished Virginia families, modem houses, old villages, and a few small modem towns.

Section a. FREDERICKSBURG to WARSAW; 56.9 m. State 3.

East of Fredericksburg, the highway runs across the Rappahannock flats, where farms are large, houses few, and dairy products are the principal source of income. Corn, wheat, and tomatoes are chief crops farther south.

State 3 branches east from US 1 (see Tour 1a) in FREDERICKSBURG (see Fredericksburg), 0 m., and crosses the Rappahannock River on the FREE BRIDGE.

At the eastern end of the bridge, 0.3 m., is a junction with County 607.

Left here to CHATHAM (R) (open April Garden Week), 0.2 m., amid wide-spreading trees and boxwood, on a hill top. The long, brick house has one-story wings flanking the taller, central mass, with modillioned cornices beneath hipped roofs. A large, pedimented two-deck porch shelters an entrance classically enframed. Chatham was built about 1765 by Colonel William Fitzhugh (1741-1808), grandson of King Carter and great-grandson of William Fitzhugh. In Colonial days, the place was famed for its private race track, its horses, and its hospitality. Washington wrote Colonel Fitzhugh: 'I have put my legs oftener under your mahogany at Chatham ... and have enjoyed your good dinners, good wines, and good company more than any other.' Late in life, Colonel Fitzhugh was forced to move to Ravensworth because, he said, he could not feed the horses of his guests here, having at times as many as 50 in his stables. The builder was the father of Mary Lee Fitzhugh, who married George Washington Parke Custis.

On FERRY FARM (R), 1.6 m., nothing remains of the house in which George Washington lived between the ages of 6 and ii I and again during the second half of his sixteenth year. To be near his mines Augustine Washington moved here in November 1738 from Hunting Creek, now Mount Vernon, with his five children, George, Elizabeth, Samuel, John Augustine, and Charles. There were also two half-brothers, Lawrence, who was in the British Navy, and Augustine II, who was managing the Pope's Creek estate. If George Washington ever threw a Spanish silver dollar across a river or ever cut down a cherry tree, Ferry Farm was the scene of his skill and cunning.

After the death of her husband in 1743 , Mary Washington sent George to Pope's Creek to live with Augustine. She remained here until 1772. 'My wants are few in this life,' she told her children, 'and I feel perfectly competent to take care of myself.' When Lawrence and his brother secretly planned to put George in the British navy and obtained a commission for him, the strong-minded woman got wind of the plan and abruptly brought George back to Ferry Farm and sent him to school in Fredericksburg.

After 1772 Mary Washington continued to manage Ferry Farm from Fredericksburg, riding out each day in a chaise. When her son-in-law, Colonel Fielding Lewis, offered to take the responsibility off her shoulders, she replied: 'Keep my books, for your eyesight is better than mine, but leave the management to me.'

Paralleling the highway for a few miles is STAFFORD HEIGHTS (L), from which, during the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, General Henry J. Hunt kept up a continuous fire to hold off the Confederates while the Federal forces crossed the Rappahannock under a barrage of their own guns.

At 12.7 m. is a junction with County 607.

Left here to LAMB's CREEK CHURCH (R), 0.5 m. (open on application at residence near by), of Brunswick Parish, built in 176o to succeed Muddy Creek Church. The building, two-thirds as wide as long, with a high-pitched hip roof, has walls laid in Flemish bond. Above both main doors and a side door at the center of the south wall are rubbed brick pediments. The interior was wrecked when the building was used as a stable during the War between the States. A copy of the 'Vinegar' Bible (1716) and a Prayer Book 0739) are preserved here. Brunswick Parish was formed in 1732. At 13.6 m. on State 3 is a junction with County 607.

Right here to the entrance to POWHATAN (L), 1.9 m., a square two-story brick house with one-story wings and connecting pavilions. Powhatan was built in 1830 by Edward Thornton Tayloe, grandson of John Tayloe (see below).

At 3.2 m. on County 607 is a junction with County 610; R. here 1.5 m. to a private road and straight ahead 0.6 m. to CLEVE, in a wide lawn by the river. The modern frame house is on the foundation of the mansion erected in 1729 for Charles Carter, a son of 'King' Carter.

SHELBURNE (L), 14.4 m., a small two-story house (c. 186o), part brick and part frame, was a home of Paul Kester (1870-1933), novelist and dramatist (see Literature).

COMORN, 15.5 m. (20 POP.), is at a junction with County 609.

Left here to (R) MARMION (adm. 50 cents), 1.9 m., built about 1750 by Colonel William Fitzhugh (1725-91), a cousin of the builder of Chatham. The external simplicity of the frame structure, which is approached by brick-paved walks, belies the elegance of its interior. Massive chimneys lift molded tops above a gabled roof. A piazza is a fairly recent addition.

The parlor has been stripped of its woodwork, which was used in a reconstruction of the room in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Flanking each door and window in the house are fluted pilasters with Ionic capitals, and the paneled walls are decorated with deep cornices. Most of the handsome, carved woodwork is marbleized, and panels are decorated in rococo style. The execution of this work was the grateful expression of a Hessian soldier whom the Fitzhugh family found wounded and nursed back to health.

William Fitzhugh, the immigrant, gave the estate to his youngest son, John (1693-1734), whose son William built the house.

At 2.4 m. on County 609 is a junction with State 218.

1. Left on State 218 1 m. to County 609 and R. to FAIRVIEW BEACH, 1.9 m., a Small resort by the Potomac River. On a hill (L) is the SITE OF THE SMITH HOUSE in which was born, September 6, 1797, William Smith, Governor of Virginia from 1846 to 1849 and again from 1864 to the fall of the Confederacy. In 1827 Smith made a contract with the Federal Government to carry mails once a week from Fairfax to Culpeper. In 1835 he established a daily four-horse post coach route between Washington and Milledgeville, Georgia. Because of his repeated demands for more compensation, he acquired the sobriquet 'Extra Billy.' The excessive drunkenness he saw at the taverns along his routes caused him to become a lecturer on prohibition.

2. Right on State 218 to EAGLE'S NEST (L), 1.9 m., an immense barnlike frame house among ancient myrtle, lilac, locusts, and mulberries. The present ante-bellum house succeeded one built about 1730 by Henry Fitzhugh, whose wife was Lucy, a daughter of 'King' Carter, and whose son, William, builder of Chatham, was born here August 24, 1741.

At 5.7 m. on State 218 is CALEDON (L), a small story-and-a-half brick house, all that remains of the home of John Alexander, for whom Alexandria was named (see Alexandria).

At 6.9 m. on State 218 is a junction with State 206 (see below).

At 16.6 m. on State 3 is a junction with State 206.

Left here to DIXON's CABIN (L), 4.6 m., the log house of Junius and Patsy Dixon, house servants who served John Wilkes Booth when he fled across this peninsula after his assassination of President Lincoln.

CLEYDALE (R), 4.7 m., was built in 1859 as the summer home of Dr. Richard H. Stuart. It was here that Booth and his accomplice Herold came at dusk on April 22, 1865, to beg food and medical aid. The doctor, becoming suspicious, declined to admit them to the house but gave them permission to rest at the barn. The following morning Booth sent the doctor a note, contemptuously thanking him for 'what we did get' and enclosing $5. Dr. Stuart threw the note into the fire, but his son-in-law recovered it. Later, when the doctor was imprisoned for complicity in the assassination, the note exonerated him.

At 6.4 m. on State 206 are junctions with County 632 and State 218 (see above).

Right here 0.2 m. on County 632 to (R) ST.PAUL'S CHURCH (open upon request at house near by), designed on a cruciform plan. Its brick walls, broken by two tiers of windows-those above topped by round arches-rise to a cornice with closely spaced dentils and support a hipped roof. Little of the original furniture remains, but a silver communion service presented by Henry Fitzhugh and a large Bible given by the Reverend William Stuart, rector in 1762, have been preserved.

The church, built in 1766, belonged to St. Paul's Parish, which was formed before 168o from Potomac Parish.

In ruins when visited by Bishop Meade in 1813, the church was subsequently repaired and used as an academy. In 1830 it was restored by the parish.

State 206 continues northward to OWENS, 8.5 m., a crossroads.

Left here 0.4 m. on County 624 to BEDFORD (L), established in 1674 by William Fitzhugh (1651-1700). The present oddly designed brick house was built during a later generation. Here by the Potomac Fitzhugh built homes for each of his five sons.

William Fitzhugh came to Virginia in 1670 with John Newton (see Tour 16A), with whom he lived at first. Together they patented large estates in the upper Northern Neck, and in 1674 Fitzhugh married Newton's step-daughter, Sarah Tucker, and sent the eleven-year-old girl to England to be educated. Fitzhugh's diversions were those of lawyer, planter, merchant, burgess, and member of the council. 'As to your wonder that I have never been troubled therewith,' he replied in 1698 to a friend who had just recovered from a severe attack of gout, 'I'll tell you Sr. I never much frequented Bacchus' Orgyes & always avoided Ceres' shrine, & never was one of Venus' votarys.'

At 10.6 m. on State 206 is a junction with County 64; R. here 0.9 m. to the frame QUESENBURY HOUSE, on Upper Machodoc Creek. After crossing the Potomac, John Wilkes Booth avoided the public landing near by and rowed to the wharf of the Quesenbury House, where he passed the night.

On State 206 is DAHLGREN, 11. 1 m. (600 pop.). Its residents are chiefly military and civilian, serving at the U.S. NAVAL PROVING GROUND (visitors admitted to operating area only by permit), where high-powered naval rifles are tested. The guns have a possible range of 50 miles down the Potomac. The lower part of the river is used also as a torpedo speed trial course.

The houses of KING GEORGE, 18 m. (75 POP.), seat of King George County, are almost entirely modern, though the village maintains an eighteenth-century atmosphere. The farmers of the surrounding territory come in each day, about the time the U.S. mail truck arrives, to receive their mail or merely to gossip on such important topics as hunting and fishing.

The COURTHOUSE (L), on a neat green, was built in 19 15. The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT on the square is a simple shaft lacking the usual figure of a Southern soldier. The original King George County was formed in 1720 from Richmond.

PERKINS' CORNER, 19.1 m., is at a junction with State 205.

Left here to Rozier's Creek, 7.7 m., named for the Reverend John Rozier, who Patented lands upon it about 1651. On the west bank is the SITE OF WASHINGTON'S MILL (L), built about 1665 by the immigrant John Washington (1632-77).

POTOMAC BEACH, 11 m. (40 POP.), is a resort and a terminus of the POTOMAC BEACH-MORGANTOWN (Md.) FERRIES (hourly service in summer, hour-and-a-half in winter; $1 for car and driver, 25 cents extra passenger, $1.50 maximum).

COLONIAL BEACH, 12.8 m. (928 POP., 5,000 to 10,000 summer pop.), is a river resort (canoes, motor boats, sailboats; fishing for trout, rock, perch, and croakers). Many of the cottage owners work in Washington but spend summer vacations here and come down on election days to vote. Two of the cottages were built by Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone. In the Colonial Beach Hotel is incorporated a house once owned by 'Light Horse Harry' Lee. The little Ionic portico has echoed diminishing elegance during a century and a half, from powdered wigs and epaulettes, through crinoline to slacks and shorts, and from minuet and waltz to big apple and jitter-bug.

The SITE OF MONROVIA (L), 14 m., is marked by a clump of locust trees. James Monroe, born here April 28, 1758, was the son of Spence Monroe and Elizabeth Jones Monroe and the great-great-grandson of Andrew Monroe, who came to Virginia in 1647. The following year Andrew returned to Scotland and fought in the Battle of Preston. Captured and banished, he came again to Virginia and in 1650 patented the first tract of the estate here.

At 17.1 m. State 205 crosses Mattox Creek, on the south bank of which is MATTOX (L), a wharf, a cannery, and one house. Barges and sailing vessels still come up the winding stream to receive cargoes, as they have since 1648 when Colonel Nathaniel Pope built a wharf and warehouse here. When young John Washington, engaged in transatlantic shipping, came to Virginia in 1656, he anchored at Mattox, and when he had subsequent litigation, Colonel Pope offered to go security for him in beaver skins. Washington decided to remain in Virginia and stayed at Pope's house. Two years later he married his friend's daughter Anne, his first wife. Her father gave the couple 700 acres of land including Mattox. They lived here until December 1664, when they purchased land along Bridges' Creek (see below).

OAK GROVE, 18.4 m. (40 POP.), is at a junction with State 3 (see below).

In OFFICE HALL, 20.7 m., is the ROLLINS HOUSE (L), where John Wilkes Booth passed the night of April 23, 1865.

Right from Office Hall on State 207 to a private road, 5.1 m.; R. here 0.1 m. to EMANUEL CHURCH (R), a small brick rectangle erected about 1840 as a church of Hanover Parish.

At 0.3 m. on the private road is (L) BELLE GROVE (open April Garden Week), a large white clapboarded house with graceful wings. Near the main entrance door is a 35-foot holly tree. Belle Grove was built about 1830 by John Bernard.

On State 207 is PORT CONWAY, 5.3 m., by the Rappahannock River, formerly an important shipping point but now a riverside hamlet with a few houses. In the wake of John Wilkes Booth, who used the ferry here on April 24, 1865, came a company of cavalry that had trailed him from Washington. The cavalry overtook Booth at the Garrett House (see Tour 6a). Washington crossed here on numerous occasions, ferried by one James Bowie, and later by his widow, Sarah, who, on November 4, 1779, petitioned the general assembly to repeal an act 'which required James Bowie or heirs of his public ferry to set foot-passengers across the Rappahannock free.' On December 24, 18oi, she asked 'authority to increase ferriage rates from Port Royal to Port Conway.'

On the bluff (L) above the bridge is the unmarked SITE OF THE CONWAY HOUSE, once home of Francis Conway, whose grandson, James Madison (see Tour 10) was born here March 16, 1751, the son of James Madison and Eleanor Rose Conway Madison.

At Port Conway State 207 crosses the Rappahannock on the James Madison Memorial Bridge (see Tour 6c).

At 27.3 m. on State 3 is a junction with County 627.

Right here to WILMONT, 2.0 m., a former steamboat-landing below high cliffs from which diatomaceous clay (fuller's earth) is taken at intervals. OAK GROVE, 31.2 m. (40 POP.), is at junctions with County 638 and State 205 (see above).

Right here on County 638, which becomes County 637, to LEEDSTOWN, 6.7 m., on a bank above a horseshoe bend in the Rappahannock River. In 1766, in this then lively port, 115 citizens called together by Thomas Ludwell Lee signed the Leedstown Resolutions. These were drafted by his brother Richard Henry Lee and enunciated principles embodied later in the Declaration of Independence. Among those present at the meeting of February 27, 1766, were two brothers of Thomas Ludwell and Richard Henry Lee and two of their cousins; three of George Washington's brothers; and Spence Monroe, the father of James Monroe. The presiding officer was judge Richard Parker, whose great-grandson, Richard Parker, was presiding judge at the trial of John Brown.

Settlement began here in 1681 but the 'Town of Leeds' was not constituted until 1742.

At 32.4 m. on State 3 is a junction with a poor dirt road.

Left here to a private road, 0.5 m., leading L. to the SITE OF HENRY WILLIAMS' SCHOOL (L), occupied now by a residence. From 1743 to 1747 George Washington attended this school.

At 34 m. on State 3 is a junction with State 204.

Left here to the GEORGE WASHINGTON BIRTHPLACE NATIONAL MONUMENT (open 8 to 6; adm. 10 cents), 1.7 m. At the entrance is a 50-foot granite shaft, and beyond a gate is a reconstruction of the story-and-a-half brick house in which Washington was born on February 22, 1732. Dormers and double outside chimneys are distinguishing features. The rooms and central hall have paneled wainscoting; the floors, old-fashioned wide boards; and the doors, heavy hand-wrought locks with brass knobs. A 'boxed' stair leads from the hall to the upper floor. The house has old furnishings and some relics.

Rows of thick untrimmed dwarf boxwood border a brick walk that extends to the herb and flower gardens. A footbridge across Dancing Marsh and a road from the monument circle lead to the LOG HOUSE (meals, lodging, souvenirs) and a picnic ground. In a walled enclosure at the end of a lane is the WASHINGTON CEMETERY, 1.1 m., containing the dust of 31 members of the family. Washington's father, grandfather, and great-grandfather are buried under table tombs. In 1923, Josephine Wheelwright Rust, a descendant of the immigrant Washington, organized the Wakefield National Memorial Association to rescue the estate from weeds and briars. That agency, with the co-operation of the Federal Government and John D. Rockefeller, Jr., brought the reservation to its present condition. Though research failed to produce an authentic picture of Pope's Creek, the foundations indicated its size. Of value was information passed down by Colonel Burgess Ball, Washington's kinsman, that the house resembled the Christian House at Providence Forge (see Tour 8a). The house was completed in 1931.

On December 3, 1664, the immigrant John Washington purchased 150 acres and built a house 50 yards cast of the spot he later selected for a burial lot. He left the estate to his son John, who, in turn, passed it to his son John. The immigrant left the estate at Mattox (see above) to his older son, Lawrence, who willed it to his son Augustine. In 1717-18 Augustine Washington purchased three tracts of land here adjoining the lands of his cousin, and in 1720 built the brick house in which Jane Butler, his first wife, died in 1720. Two years later he married Mary Ball of Sandy Point (see Tour 16A). George was their first child.

On the headstream of Pope's Creek, at 34.7 m., is WASHINGTON'S MILL (R), built in 1713 by Nathaniel Pope, purchased in 1728 by Augustine Washington, and owned by the Washington family through several generations. Repaired and remodeled at intervals, it is still in use.

At 38.9 m. is a junction with County 642.

Left here to WESTMORELAND STATE PARK, 1.5 m. (open May 15 to Nov. 1; adm. 10 cents; overnight camping, 25 cents, children under 10, free; rowboats 25 cents an hr., maximum, $1.25 a day; dock privileges, 25 cents a day; cabins with electric lights, stoves, water heaters--Payment by coin meters-$15 a week for 2 persons, $20 for 3 or 4 Persons, $5 for each additional person; reservations made at Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond). This large park extends along the Potomac River, with a beach below high steep cliffs.

At 39.6 m. on State 3 is a junction with State 214.

Left here to STRATFORD HALL (L), 1.1 m. (open 9-6; adm. 50 cents, children 25 cents). The house stands near a grove of beeches on cliffs high above the Potomac River. It is a massive brick structure dominated by two arcaded groups of four chimneys with heavily molded tops rising solidly from the multiple hipped roof. Though simple and robust in architectural style, it has dignity. Its H-plan, a survival from Elizabethan and Jacobean times, occupies the center of a great square marked at the corners by four large dependent buildings. A 'ha-ha' wall has been restored across the front of this square. The main floor, reached from outside by long flights of steps, is above an exceedingly tall ground floor that held several other rooms. The bricks of the ground floor wall, of the face of the main floor, and of the chimneys, are laid in Flemish bond and form a strikingly checkered pattern. Over both entrance doorways are simple brick pediments broken at the lower corners.

The five rooms of the main floor are spacious and lofty. The hall forming the bar of the H is 30 feet square. Beneath a coved ceiling are pine panels divided at unequal intervals by Ionic pilasters. Passages lead to a pair of rooms in each wing. A single inside stairway, at the end of the east passage, descends to the ground floor.

The Robert E. Lee Memorial Foundation, organized in 1929, completed the purchase of Stratford in 1932 and is gradually restoring the estate as a memorial to the Confederate commander and to provide a model Colonial plantation with characteristic industries and plants. The house had had no great structural changes since Colonial times. But the wharf, mill, shop, and springhouse, and the formal gardens with box-bordered walks and box mazes had disappeared and are being replaced. The vista, long obscured by trees, again provides a view of the river.

The estate, called the 'Clifts Plantation,' was patented in 1651 by Nathaniel Pope, one of George Washington's great-great-grandfathers, and in 1716 was purchased by Thomas Lee (1690-1750). Colonel Lee was building the house and other buildings in 1729, when fire destroyed his birthplace and former home, Matholic (see Tour 16A). Thomas Lee was the only native Virginian to be appointed by the Crown as governor of Virginia. In 1722 he married Hannah Ludwell, who became the mother of i I children, among them: Philip Ludwell, Thomas Ludwell, Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot, William, and Arthur-all except Philip Ludwell born here. A daughter, Hannah, was one of America's first suffragists.

The eldest, Philip Ludwell Lee (1727-75), married Elizabeth Steptoe, inherited Stratford, and had two daughters, Matilda and Flora. In 1775 Matilda inherited Stratford and in 1782 married her cousin, General Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee. She died in 1790, leaving three children, Philip Ludwell, Lucy Grymes, and Henry. In the next year General Henry Lee was elected governor of Virginia and in 1793 he married Ann Hill Carter. Among their children was Robert Edward Lee, born here January 19, 1807.

The estate descended to Henry Lee (1787-1837), son of 'Light Horse Harry' Lee and Matilda Lee, Philip Ludwell having died. When Robert Edward was four years of age, 'Light Horse Harry,' in order to permit Henry to have full possession of Stratford, moved to Alexandria.

Stratford exemplified the pinnacle of Colonial cultural, social, and plantation life. 'The owner [Philip Ludwell Lee] . . . lived here in great state,' said General Robert E. Lee, 'and kept a band of musicians to whose airs his daughters, Matilda and Flora, with their companions, danced in the saloon or promenaded on the housetop.' Philip Vickers Fithian, tutor at Nomini Hall (see Tour 16A) in 1773, wrote of a visit here in his Journals & Letters: 'When the candles were lighted, we all repaired, for the last time, into the dancing-room. First each danced a Minuet; then all joined as before in the country dances; these continued till half after Seven when Mr. Christian retired; and, at the proposal of several (with Mr. Carter's approbation), we played Button, to get Pauns for Redemption . . . Half after eight we were rung in to Supper. The room looked luminous and splendid; four very large candles burned on the table where we supped; three others in different parts of the Room; a gay sociable Assembly, and four well instructed waiters. So soon as we rose from supper, the Company formed into a semicircle round the fire, and played "break the Pope's neck." Here we had great Diversion in the respective judgments upon the offenders, but we were all dismissed by ten and retired to our several Rooms.'

State 214 becomes County 645; at 3.5 m. is a private road; L. here to an unimproved road, 4.7 m., and R. to the SITE OF CHANTILLY, 5.2 m., marked by clumps of jonquils--once the home of Richard Henry Lee, who built it after his return from school in Europe and named it for a chateau near Paris.

Richard Henry Lee (1732-94) was one of the first to advocate separation of the colonies from Great Britain and the emancipation of American slaves. His first address as a member of the Virginia house of burgesses in 1757 was against the importation of slaves. Lee was the author of the resolution of the Continental Congress for a declaration of independence and was to have been chairman of the committee appointed to draw up a declaration, but was called home by illness in his family. He helped draft the Articles of Confederation and was president of the Congress in 1784. He declined membership in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 on the grounds that the plan was to submit the new constitution to Congress for approval, that he was a member of that body, and that he did not think the men that wrote the constitution should review their own work. He opposed ratification of the Constitution by Virginia because it did not contain a bill of rights, and was the author of the Tenth Amendment, which, with the first nine amendments, constituted the Bill of Rights as it finally stood.

MONTROSS, 43.9 M. (200 pop.), seat of Westmoreland County, is largely a village of modern houses. The residents have inherited not only the property but also the hospitable and genial nature of their ancestors.

The WESTMORELAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE, on a green, is a tall oblong structure with a hip roof. An addition made in 1936 under the Williamsburg influence--including a Doric portico-converted it into a T-shaped building. The first courthouse here was built in 1673-74, when Montross became the county seat. Part of the third courthouse, erected in 1817, has been incorporated in this one. Westmoreland County was carved from the western part of Northumberland County in 1653 and, when constituted, stretched westward beyond the present District of Columbia. Territorial changes in 1664 and in 1778 brought about the final boundaries.

In the CLERK'S OFFICE in the courthouse are records that date from the formation of the county. Portraits on the walls of the courtroom include one of James Monroe, by Willis Pepoon, after Vanderlyn; of Richard Henry Lee, by Pepoon, after one by Charles Willson Peale; and of Francis Lightfoot Lee, a copy of one by Charles S. Forbes. The most valuable portrait is that of William Pitt (Lord Chatham), painted in 1768-69 by Charles Willson Peale and restored in 1935. Here also is a full-length portrait of General Robert E. Lee, by E.F.Andrews.

TEMPLEMANS, 47.5 m. (20 POP.), is at a junction with State 202 (see Tour 16A).

By a junction with an alternate of State 202, 48 m., is NOMINI BAPTIST CHURCH (L), a simple rectangular brick building that belongs to the second oldest Baptist congregation in the Northern Neck, organized in 1786. There had been early dissenters from the Established Church in the area, among them nine persons who, in 1717, were committed to the 'County Gaol of Westmoreland'for convening'under pretence of religious worship . . . in Concenticles, contrary and repugnant to Law.' The court had directed that the prisoners, 'severally, in the presence of the persons congregated at Yeocomico Church (see Tour 16A) . . . own their fault and acknowledge their error . . . and humbly ask God and this congregation forgiveness of the offense . . . promise never to commit the like again.'

Right on State 202--alternate to a private road, 5.1 m.; R. here I M. to MENOKIN (pronounced Mee-no-kin), on a high bluff. The square main building, two stories high with a hip-on-hip roof is constructed of blocks of dark-colored stone, now covered with stucco and trimmed with light sandstone. The 12 rooms have hand-carved man tels. Only one dependency remains. Menokin, built about 1770 by the Tayloe family, became the home of Francis Lightfoot Lee, who was born at Stratford Hall October 14, 1734, and in 1769 married Rebecca, second daughter of Colonel John Tayloe of Mount Airy (see below). With his brother, Richard Henry Lee, he signed the Leedstown Resolutions and the Declaration of Independence.

At 9 m. on State 202 is a junction with State 3 (see below).

At 53.7 m. on State 3 is a junction with State 203.

Left here to a private road, 0.6 m., and R. to BLADENSFIELD, 1.2 m. (adm. 50 cents, children 25 cents), a large frame house on a brick basement. The walls of nogging covered with clapboards rise two stories to a gabled roof with several dormers, the largest of which is over the entrance. There are hand-carved mantels and cornices, dial-pinned flooring, and H-L hinges. The rear door, with peep-hole, is fastened by the hardtimbered bar that held it secure against the Indians in the 1690's.

Behind the house is a flower garden containing rare old-fashioned plants.

The original estate of i,ooo acres was patented by John Jenkins May 14, 1653, and the present house was built for Jenkins by Nicholas Rochester, who came from Engdpin 1689. At Jenkins's death in 1710, Bladensfield was added to the Nomini Hall estate (see Tour 16A). When, about 1775, John Peck, who had succeeded Philip Vickers Fithian as tutor to the Carter children, eloped with his pupil, Ann Tasker Carter, her father, Councillor Carter, was irate at first but relented and gave Bladensfield to them as a wedding gift.

In later years 'the Laying of the Ghosts,' was occasionally conducted here. 'Vast crowds' of Negroes arrived--'until the hills were covered.' A preacher backed through the rear door, wearing his coat inside out and upside down and reading a page of the Bible, from the bottom line upwards. After the ceremony the ghosts were 'never quite so bad.'

At 56.5 m. is a junction with State 202 (see above).

WARSAW, 56.9 m. (400 POP.), the tree-strewn seat of Richmond County, is redolent of the past, despite its modern stores and a predominance of new residences. On court days and Saturdays the county people gather here to gossip and to buy and barter, and the citizenry still clings to traditions of decanter and frosted julep cup. The village received its present name in 1845 because of local sympathy for the Poles, who were fighting for independence.

The brick RICHMOND COUNTY COURTHOUSE, on a green, has a lowpitched hip roof, round-arched and deeply recessed windows, and a front canopy. It was built in 1748-49. Richmond County, constituted in 1692, included all Old Rappahannock County that had lain north of the Rappahannock River. In 17 20 it was reduced to its present small area.

The two-room CLERK'S OFFICE near by, also erected in 1748-49, had only one room until 1935. The walls of the old part are two feet thick and are of blocks of stone. The building is heated now, as formerly, by an open fireplace. Here are musty records, including deeds and wills, recorded by professional scribes, who spelled 'God' with a small g and 'Rum' with a capital R.

Warsaw was the home of William Atkinson Jones, who worked for the independence of the Philippine Islands. In the yard of St. John's Church here is the costly mausoleum erected over his grave by the people of the Islands.

Right from Warsaw on US 360, which unites briefly eastward with State 3, to a private road, 1.2 m.; L. here 0.9 m., between hedges, to SAMNE HALL (adm. to house 50 cents, to garden 50 cents), on high ground close to a gate lodge. The brick walls of the mansion, laid in Flemish bond and now covered with a light cement wash, are a softly mottled pink and gray. A tall portico with four slender hand-hewn Tuscan columns breaks the facade of the main unit, which is extended by low wings to a length of 180 feet. White stone trim includes flat arches over the windows and a heavy enframement of the entrance. On the south front, broad verandas overlook a large garden, laid out for the builder by an English gardener. In early spring old gardenia-narcissus blooms here in profusion. Five grassy terraces lead down toward the flat land along the river, a mile or two away.

The interior is paneled with heart pine, carved in the heavy style of the first half of the eighteenth century. The staircase, in a side hall, opening through a wide pilastered arch off an immense transverse hall, leads to a similar hall above. The finest woodwork is in the library and halls. Most of the furnishing belongs to the early days of the house. Among the many portraits of Carters is one of Robert 'King' Carter. The Colonial library is intact.

The estate was acquired by 'King' Carter, who gave it to his son Landon. The house was built about 1730. Young Carter named his new home for the hillside estate of the Roman, Horace. The portico was added shortly after the Revolution. The east wing is a reconstruction.

At 1.6 m. on US 360 is another private road; R. here 0.5 m. to MOUNT AIRY (Private), most noted of the several houses built by the Tayloes. The lane leads through park, meadow, and lawn to the house that looks across terraced lawns toward the river. Dwarf boxwood of giant proportions still takes its undulating course among the remains of a formal garden.

Built of brown stone, with light stone trim, Mount Airy consists of a massive central block, curving passageways, and two large dependencies set forward. The broad hip roof of the main unit is pierced by four chimneys near the ridge. The walls, three feet thick, are broken by slightly projecting pavilions, the one in front on the first floor square-columned in antis and that at the rear arcaded. These pavilions, the framing of every opening, the wide string course, and the deeply emphasized water table are all constructed of light Aquia stone.

A fire in 1844 swept away the fine interior woodwork but left the walls undisturbed. The wide central hall opens into a lateral hall that leads to front and back parlors and into the dining room, to which food is still carried from the kitchen dependency, as in the days of myriad servants. Old furniture, rarest of which perhaps is a cylinder piano played by turning a handle, and valuable pieces of glass, china, and silver are cherished ere. The walls are lined with a large collection of family portraits, including work of Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Sully, Thomas Hudson, and John Wollaston, and etchings by St. Memin.

The estate, acquired by William Tayloe, who built the first house, descended first to his son, Colonel John Tayloe (1687-1747), and then to Colonel John Tayloe II (1721-79), who built the present house about 1758. The formal setting and character of this Georgian mansion and the monumental scale of the original garden suggest a European designer. On Colonel Tayloe's death in 1779, Mount Airy passed to his only son, Colonel John Tayloe III (1771-1824), builder of the Octagon House in Washington.

John Tayloe II had a deer park and maintained a band of musicians among his servants. He was an importer and breeder of fine race horses. Philip Vickers Fithian, a visitor here in 1774, wrote, 'Fish, Feasts, and Fillies! . . . Loud disputes concerning the Excellence of each others Colts-concerning their Fathers, Mothers (for so they call the Dams), Brothers, Sisters, Uncles, Aunts, Nephews, Neices, and Cousins to the fourth Degree! All the Evening Toddy constantly circulating. Supper came in, and at Supper I had a full, broad, satisfying view of Miss Sally Panton. I wanted to hear her converse, but, poor Girl, anything she attempted to say was drowned in the more polite and useful jargon about Dogs and Horses . . . In the Dining-Room, beside many other fine Pieces, are twenty four of the most celebrated among the English RaceHorses, Drawn masterly, and set in elegant gilt Frames.'

On the grounds are the tombs of Francis Lightfoot Lee and Rebecca, his wife, who was second daughter of the builder of Mount Airy.

At 2.4 m. on US 36o is a junction with State 204; R. here 4.7 m. to County 636 and L. to NAYLOR'S HOLE, 6.8 m., now a wharf and a few houses but once a shipping point for the ancestral seat of the Fauntleroy family. Colonel Moore Fauntleroy settled here in 1651. During a later period, Naylor's Hole was the home of Elizabeth Fauntleroy, George Washington's mysterious 'Lowland Beauty,' who turned Washington down on account of the smallpox scars on his f ace. In 1752, Washington wrote her father, Colonel William Fauntleroy: 'I purpose . . . to wait on Miss Betsy, in hopes of a revocation of the former cruel sentence and see if I can meet with any alteration in my favor.' US 360 crosses the Rappahannock River on the Downing Bridge, erected in 1927 to TAPPAHANNOCK, 6.4 m. (427 POP.) (see Tour 6a), at a junction with US 17, and US 360 westward (see Tour 20a).

Section b. WARSAW to WFSTLAND; 47.6 m. State 3.

This section of State 3 traverses the lower Northern Neck, crossing many side roads that lead to old plantations near the Bay and the Rappahannock. The people engage in seafood industries, shipping, and agriculture.

East of WARSAW, 0 m., State 3 is united with US 360, for 0.8 miles.

At 7.2 m. is a junction with State 228.

Right here to SHARPS, 6.1 m. (300 POP-), with old and new houses along its unpaved streets. A shipping point since Colonial days, and still sending out seafood, the village is now more important as a resort on the Rappahannock (boats available for fishing).

In FARNHAM, 9.9 m. (45 POP.), on a pleasant greensward, is (L) NORTH FARNHAM CHURCH, Greek-cruciform in plan, with a single tier of windows. Though the church was once almost demolished by fire, the present walls are those erected in 1737. Above the door is a fanlight; in the gable are two round lights; and in the side walls of the transepts are oval-topped windows.

North Farnham Parish was formed in 1692. After the Revolution the church was deserted for many years. Bishop Meade reported that the bricks of the wall around the plot had been used for hearths, chimneys, and other purposes and that the church itself was used 'as a granery, stable, a resort for hogs . . . For years it was also used as a distillery . . . while the marble font was circulated from house to house, on every occasion of mirth and folly . . . until at length it was found bruised, battered, and deeply sunk in the cellar of some deserted tavern.' The walls show bullet holes, scars of a skirmish during the War of 1812, when the Richmond County Militia repelled Admiral Cockburn's raiders.

The church was restored in 1835, but during the War between the States was again stripped of its furniture and occupied by both Federal and Confederate troops. Restored, it was burned in 1887 and restored again in 1920-24. The communion silver and the communion font have been returned.

EPPING FOREST (R) is at 19.9 m. The present oddly-designed two-story frame house on a wide shady lawn replaced one built by Colonel Joseph Ball (1649-1711), who inherited this 'forest estate' in 1680 from his father, Colonel William Ball. Joseph Ball married Elizabeth Romney and reared a son and four daughters. In February 17c,8, when a widower 59 years of age, he deeded his farm to his son Joseph and divided all his personal property among his five mature children, reserving the right to continue to reside here and also certain dower rights for a wife in the event he again married. He forthwith married a widow, Mary Montague Johnson, who in 1708 or 1709 became the mother of Mary Ball.

When Mary was a small child, her father died, and her mother married Captain Richard Hawes, who took her and her three children to his home in Cherry Point Neck, Northumberland County. At her mother's death in 1721, Mary Ball went to live with her guardian at Sandy Point (see Tour 16A). Mary Ball married Augustine Washington and became the mother of George.

LIVELY, 21.7 m. (75 pop.), warns motorists by a conspicuous sign that its speed limit is five miles an hour.

Right from Lively on State 201 to FARMVILLE (R), 2.4 m., a brick ante-bellum house on the site of the home of David Fox, who settled here about 1650, and became a leader in church and civil affairs.

By a junction with County 622, at 3.2 m. is (R) ST.MARY'S WHITE CHAPEL (keys at house near by), quiet and lovely among trees and tombs. The chapel suggests not a church but a cottage. Its brick walls beneath a hip roof are covered with a cloak of ivy. Beneath a barrel ceiling are aisles paved with 'good Smooth well burnt tile.' Built in 1740-41, the church was originally cruciform in plan. When it was restored in 1830, after long abandonment, the transepts were removed. Here are the marble font, a silver chalice (1699), and a paten (1691), which were used in the first church. St. Mary's White Chapel is one of two churches of Christ Church Parish, formed in 1668 from Lancaster Parish.

Left from St. Mary's White Chapel 4.2 m. on County 622 to County 625; L. here to MILLENBECK, 6.8 m., an old village by Corotoman River. It has grown up around the private wharf built in 1651 by William Ball (015-80). In 1652 Millenbeck became the first seat of Lancaster County.

LANCASTER, 26.1 m. (150 pop.), seat of Lancaster County, maintains an atmosphere of eighteenth-century leisure except on court days.

The COURTHOUSE, a tall brick building erected about 1800, contains the usual portraits of native sons and daughters, among them one of Mary Ball Washington. The monument on the green, a simple marble shaft, is among the first erected to the soldiers of the Confederacy. Lancaster County, constituted in 1652, at first embraced territory on both sides of the Rappahannock River, extending westward indefinitely.

The CLERK'S OFFICE contains records that date from the county's formation.

At 26.7 m. is a junction with County 604.

Right here to a private road, 3.7 m., and L. 0.2 m. to VERVILLE, a brick house, built between 1680 and 1690 on a mound above the flats of Corotoman River. The two-story central unit, beneath a steeply curbed roof with dormers almost flush, is flanked by low, gabled wings. A pair of chimneys pointing up the gambrel ends are unusually tall. Interior woodwork includes high wainscoting and carved mantels. Verville was built by Dr. James Madison, an eccentric Scottish immigrant.

WHITE MARSH CHURCH (R), 28.9 m., a plain brick structure, was built in 1848 by a Methodist congregation that organized in 1792. The first Methodist camp meeting in this section was held here. Bishops Enoch George and David S. Doggett were members of the congregation.

Despite its small population KILMARNOCK, 33.1 m. (900 pop.), has 82 licensed business establishments. Henrietta Hall (1817-44), the first American woman to go to China as missionary, was born here.

Left from Kilmarnock on State 200 to County 607, 2 m., and R. 0.2 m. to County 669; L. here 1 m. to a private road (R) that leads 0.9 m. to COBB's HALL, between the two branches of Dividing Creek. The present frame residence, fourth on this site, is a successor to that built by Richard Lee, forebear of the Lees of Virginia, who moved here in 1651, and became burgess, a member of the council, and Secretary of the Colony. He was loyal to the Crown during the Cromwell regime. John Gibbons, poet and great-granduncle of the historian, said that in 1659 he was 'most hospitably entertained by the Honourable Collonel Richard Lee, who after the King's martyrdom hired a Dutch vessel, freighted her himself, went to Brussels, surrendered up Sir William Barcklaie's old commission and received a new one from his present Majesty.'

On County 607 is the entrance, 1.5 m, to DITCHLEY (L). The massive walls of the brick dwelling, in a shaded yard, rise two stories to a full cornice and hip roof. A one-story wing extends one end of the rectangle, and porches are centered on both facades. The house was built in 1752 by Kendall Lee on the site of a house built by his grandfather, Hancock Lee, who is buried near by.

The immigrant Richard Lee patented the estate in 1651. His fifth son, Hancock Lee (1651-1709), built the first Ditchley house in 1686 and named it for an estate near Oxford, England. He and his second wife Sarah were the great-grandparents of Zachary Taylor.

On State 200 is MORATTICO CHURCH (L), 2.7 m., a large rectangular brick building erected in 1856 by a congregation formed in 1778.

WICOMICO CHURCH, 7.4 m. (75 pop.), an old village on County 200, took its name from a church that stood on a site beside the modern Episcopal Mission Church (R). Wicomico Church (pronounced Y-kom-eye-ko), built in 1771, was reduced to ruins after the Revolution. Its communion sets are preserved in the present church. A silver cup bears the inscription: 'Ex Dono Hancock Lee to ye Parish of Lee 17 11! Other pieces have inscriptions with the dates 1726, 1728, and 1736.

Right from Wicomico Church 1.4 m. on County 609 to County 665 and L. to a private road (R), 3.3 m., that leads 0.1 m. to WICOMICO VIEW, a brick, two-and-a-half -story house with gabled roof, dormers, and thick walls. A circular stairway winds, without any newel, from the first to the top floor. This has been a home of the Hudnall family since 1656, when John Hudnall acquired his first tract of 100 acres.

State 200 continues northward and crosses the Great Wicomico River to BURGESS STORE, 12.7 m. (20 pop.), at a junction with US 360 (see Tour 16A).

State 3 turns R. in Kilmarnock and passes small farms and numerous crossroad-communities.

At 36.5 m., where State 3 turns L. at a junction with State 222, is the tomb-strewn yard (R) of CHRIST CHURCH (open 8-6, contributions), probably the finest Greek-cruciform. Colonial church in Virginia. Its heavy brick walls laid in Flemish bond support a steep, swag roof with four hips. The three wide entrance doors have classical frames of rubbed brick and are under small oval windows. The tall windows have round arches of brick with stone keys. The ceiling within, 30 feet above the floor, has groined arches. The aisles are paved with large slabs of sandstone. Except for a new roof-covering in 1896 and a recent treatment of the furniture to preserve it, the church remains almost as it was when completed in 173 2. The wine-glass pulpit and sounding-board are intact. The tables with inscriptions of the Ten Commandments and the Creed are above the chancel. Near the chancel is the vault in which were buried 'King' Carter's father, John Carter, who died in 069, his three wives, a son, and also two daughters, Elinor and Sarah. An ambiguous inscription on the tomb has given rise to the story that John Carter had five wives.

This church sprang from the arrogance of 'King' Carter, autocratic viceroy of the Northern Neck Proprietor. 'King' Carter, insisting that the new church be on the site of the church erected in 1669-75, offered to build the church at his own expense, so that the church would continue to embrace the vault of his parents. Bishop Meade said that, though it was the custom for the rector to sign the vestry minute book first and then the members in the order of their rank, in Christ Church Parish the Carters always signed first. In the churchyard are the ornate sarcophagi of 'King' Carter and his two wives.

Right on State 222 to a junction with a private road, 3 m.; R. here 0.8 m. to WHARTON GROVE, formerly a camp-meeting ground but now a summer resort.

At 3.2 m. on State 222 is a private road leading (R) 0.3 m. to the SITE OF COROTOMAN, on the bank of the Rappahannock. Of this ancestral seat of the Carter family, only ruins of one out-building remain.

The immigrant John Carter settled here about 1650. At his death in 1669 his son Robert (1663-1732) inherited the place, later built an elaborate home-plant, acquired vast estates for his services as agent for the proprietors of the Northern Neck, and developed the wide sphere of influence that won his sobriquet. Speaker of the house of burgesses, treasurer of the colony, and acting governor, 'King' Carter was also a pioneer road builder. Greatness, however, came to him from his descendents, largely through the female line, among whom were eight governors of Virginia, three signers of the Declaration of Independence, two Presidents (the two Harrisons), Bishop William Randolph Meade, General Robert E. Lee, Chief justice Edward Douglas White, Carter Harrison, and Lila Meade Valentine. Ann Hill Carter, the mother of Robert E. Lee, was born here in 1773. Corotoman passed to 'King' Carter's eldest son, John Carter (1690-1743), then to his son Charles (1732-1806). By his marriage to Elizabeth Hill, John acquired Shirley (see Tour 24), which Charles inherited and to which he moved in 1776.

IRVINGTON, 38.1 m. (700 pop.), by Carter's Creek, is noted for its seafood and fishing grounds. The winter occupation of those who live in the small frame houses, spread along the tree-lined streets in the newer section, is primarily oyster and herring packing. Plants here extract oil from menhaden and manufacture fertilizer from fish. But in summer the town becomes festive. Urban people open their cottages, motor launches arrive, and boats are made ready for fishing parties.

On Rappahannock Day, usually the Fourth of July, people from the entire Northern Neck come for the motorboat racing, athletic contests, and the crowning of 'Miss Rappahannock.'

The IRVINGTON-GRAY'S POINT FERRY (see Tour 16a) connects the neck with the mainland (about every 2 hrs.; $1 for car and driver, 25 cents each passenger).

WHITE STONE, 40 m. (300 POP-), is a modernized commercial community.

At 40.3 m. is a junction with County 639.

Right here to WHITE STONE BEACH, 1.1 m., a resort on the Rappahannock (fishing and salt-water swimming).

State 3 traverses a tiny odd-shaped peninsula formed by the Rappahannock and Oyster Creek, passing residences of fishermen.

WESTLAND, 47.6 m. (35 pop.), is at the southeastern tip of the Northern Neck. Here a steamboat unloads supplies used in the seafood industries and receives oysters or packed-herring for Northern points. It carries both passengers and freight.

Tour 16A

Templemans--Hague--Callao--Heathsville--Burgess Store--Reedville; 39 m. State 202-US 360.

Asphalt-surf aced throughout.

This route traverses the northern part of the lower Northern Neck, roughly paralleling the Potomac and crossing the upper reaches of its estuaries. At its lower end the road traverses the neck between the Little Wicomico and the Great Wicomico. The section comprises fertile farms and also an area of the menhaden industry. Along the way are old homesteads, modern houses, old grist mills on quietly flowing creeks, and villages that dream of other days.

State 202 crosses State 3 (Lsee Tour 16a) at TEMPLEMANS, 0 m., and proceeds northeastward.

On the east bank of the Nomini River is NomiNy CHURCH (L), 3.4 m., a simple brick rectangle with gabled roof, built in 1704, burned by the British in 1813 and rebuilt. Though the church of Cople Parish, which was constituted in 1664, has lost most of its old furnishings, it has preserved its silver intact.

In 1773 Philip Vickers Fithian, tutor in the Carter family at Nomini Hall (see below), wrote: 'Between my window and the Potowmack is Nominy Church, in a pleasant agreeable place . . . We were rowed [there] by slaves . . . The river was alive with boats, some fishing, some going to church.'

At 4.3 m. is a junction with County 6 2 1.

Left here to a private road, 1.7 m., and L. 1.2 m. to BUSHFIELD, a large, vine-covered brick house approached through a flower garden. Built about the middle of the nineteenth century, the bulky structure has a long portico and a dormer-dotted roof topped by a cupola with weather vane.

Richard Bushrod, who acquired the estate in 1659, left it to his son John, whose widow, Hannah Keene, though twice remarried, was buried here, at her request, between her first and third husbands. Her eldest son, John Bushrod II, whose wife was Mildred Corbin of Pecatone, willed Bushfield to his daughter Hannah, who married John Augustine Washington and was mistress at Mount Vernon during George Washington's bachelorhood. Her son, Bushrod Washington, who became a justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born here June 5, 1762.

Events at Bushfield in 1782, just after the marriage of justice Washington's brother Corbin to Hannah Lee, are recorded in the Journal of a Young Lady of Virginia: 'When we got here we found the House pretty full . . . Milly Washington is a thousand times prettyer than I thought her at first . . . About sunset, Nancy, Milly, and myself took a walk in the Garden . . . We were mighty busy cutting thistles to try our sweethearts when Mr.Washington [Corbin] caught us; and you can't conceive how he plagued us-chased us all over the Garden, and was quite impertinent. I must tell you of our frolic after we went in our room. We took it into our heads to want to eat . . . While we were eating the apple pye in bed . . . in came MrWashington, dressed in Hannah's short gown and peticoat, and seazed me and kissed me twenty times, in spite of all the resistance I could make; and then Cousin Molly. Hannah soon followed, dress'd in his Coat. They joined us in eating the apple pye, and then went out. After this we took it in our heads to want to eat oysters. We got up, put on our rappers, and went down in the Seller to get them. Do you think Mr. Washington did not follow us and scear us just to death 1'

At 3.2 m. on County 621 is a junction with County 626; L. here 0.4 m. to a private road, on which R. 1.2 m. to the GLEBE OF COPLE PARISH, on a broad lawn by Glebe Creek. The old two-story part of this brick house, built in 1680, has been altered and enlarged considerably. The Reverend John Waugh, the first rector to occupy the Glebe, was fined 10,000 pounds of tobacco in 1674 for marrying Restitute Whitson, an orphan, to Matthew Steel, after having been forbidden to do so by the girl's guardian. Restitute was of 'good lineage and estate,' while Steel was of 'no estate.' In this house was born John Augustine Smith (1782-1865), who was the son of the Reverend Thomas Smith, and became the ninth president of the College of William and Mary and later president of King's College (now Columbia University).

On December 27, 1773, Fithian wrote: 'Mrs. Carter gave me an invitation to wait on her to Parson Smith's . . . Mrs.Carter, Miss Prissy, Miss Fanny, and Miss Betsy in the chariot; Bob and I on horseback . . . When we had dined the ladies retired, leaving us a bottle of wine and a bowl of toddy for companions.'

Among the Colonial clergymen buried near by was the Reverend Walter Jones, who officiated at the marriage of Washington's parents.

At 6.5 m. on State 202 is a junction with County 626.

Right here to County 612, 1 m., and R. to Nomini HALL (R), 1.6 m. The large brick house, built by Robert 'King' Carter about 1725 for his son Robert, and home of Robert's son, Councillor Robert Carter, was destroyed by fire in 1850. Near its site is a frame ante-bellum house. Two rows of large old poplar trees border the driveway.

Councillor Robert Carter (1728-1804), perhaps the most accomplished and distinguished of the sons or grandsons of 'King' Carter, became a Baptist, and opened Nomini Hall as a forumfor the dissemination of new doctrines. In 1761 he had moved his family to Williamsburg, but in 1770 he came back to Nomini Hall. The Princetonian, Philip Vickers Fithian, served here as tutor for the Carter children, from October 1773 to October 1774, and here wrote the Journal & Letters that give one of the best descriptions of Virginia plantation life. Nothing escaped Fithian's noticechurch, wines and liquors, bedbugs, parsons, and cock-fighting; epidemics of 'flux, ague, and putrid quinsy,' prevalent illiteracy, pronunciations and locutions-'sho-er' for shower, 'sale' for vendue; fox hunting and social events-'blow high, blow low, Virginians . . . will dance or die.'

Councillor Carter emancipated all his slaves except those he had given with the marriage portion of one of his daughters, but later 'wrote a serious letter to Mr. Ball [his son-in-law], exhorting him to free his Negroes or he would assuredly go to hell. Mr. Ball . . . returned answer to the old gentleman's letter, " Sir, I will run the chance. "

HAGUE, 8.1 m. (50 POP.), colloquially 'The Hague,' is a gay community, cultured, and ancestor conscious. Its people cling to leisurely living and class distinctions; but, like other descendants of Northern Neck settlers, they are liberals, awake to new social trends that threaten the security of their snug little world.

Left from the western limit of Hague, through a field behind a house to the SITE OF LEE HALL, 0.5 m., marked by foundations and a cemetery. The large brick house, abandoned after 1839, was built about 1720 by Thomas Lee (see Tour 16a) for his brother Henry (1691-1747). Lee Hall is best known as the home of Henry Lee's second son, Richard (1726-95), called 'Squire Lee.' This Richard remained a bachelor until he was about 60 years of age, then married his cousin, Sally Poythress, and had three daughters-Mary, Lettice, and Richarda. After his death, Sally Poythress, married Willoughby Newton. But she rests here beside her first husband, 'Squire Lee of Lee Hall.'

On May T8, 1774, Fithian wrote of a ball here 'attended by over seventy persons, of whom forty-one were ladies.' With occasional intermissions for sleep, the party continued for three days. The music 'was from a French horn and two violins. The Ladies were Dressed Gay and splendid, and when dancing their Skirts and Brocades rustled and trailed behind them . . . There were parties in Rooms made up, some at Cards; some drinking for Pleasure; some toasting the Sons of America; some singing "Liberty Songs," as they call them, in which six, eight, ten or more would put their heads near together and roar.'

The entrance to LINDEN (R) is at 8.4 m. The present white frame house, amid shrubbery and old trees, was built in 1929, replacing a house erected a century earlier by Willoughby Newton (1802-74). The old brick outbuildings remain. Willoughby Newton, a congressman, was an associate of Edmund Ruffin in 1845 in the founding of the Virginia State Agricultural Society. Mrs.Willoughby Newton, as a refugee in Hanover County, officiated in 1862 at 'the burial of LatanP (see Tour 20a). At Linden was born her granddaughter, Mary Newton Stanard (1865-1929), whose book The Story of Bacon's Rebellion (1907), constitutes the most authentic account of the rebellion of 1676. Among Mrs.Stanard's works are several social histories.

At 8.5 m. is a junction with County 612.

Left here to MOUNT PLEASANT (L), 0.3 m., with a large frame house on what was once part of the Lees' Matholic estate. The house built in 1886 by John Emerson Randolph Crabbe, became the last home of Paul Kesier (see Tour 16a), the dramatist and novelist.

West of the lawn is the site of the first Mount Pleasant, built in 1729 by Thomas Lee for his brother Richard, who had been sent to school in England, married there, and never returned. His only son, George (1714-61), who occupied the house that had been built for his father, married Anne Fairfax, widow of Lawrence Washington. Soon after this marriage and George Washington's purchase of the widow's dowry, a quarrel arose between George Lee and George Washington over the division of the Mount Vernon slaves, causing Washington to ask for a leave of absence from his military duties. However, the 'very important dispute,' as Washington called it, was settled amicably. Here, beside her second husband, is buried Mount Vernon's first mistress.

At 0.7 m. is a junction with a dirt road; L. here 0.2 m. and R. to another turn, 1. 1 m.; L. again to the SITE OF MATHOLIC, 1.3 m., in an area now called 'Burnt House Field.' The house on Machodoc Creek, destroyed in 1729, had been built in 1666. Here is the Lee family's ancient cemetery, enclosed by a brick wall. Within are the tombs of Richard Lee II, Thomas Lee, and Richard Henry Lee-father, son, and grandson.

The immigrant Richard Lee I founded this seat of the Lees when in 1650 he patented 1,000 acres here. He added more acreage and gave the estate to his eldest son, John Lee (1645-73), who built the house. John died unmarried, and Matholic passed to his brother Richard, then to Richard's eldest son, Richard III, who, being in England, leased the place to his brothers, Thomas and Henry-for 'the yearly rent of one pepper corn only on the feast day of the birth of our Lord God.'

The second Richard Lee (1647-1714) sided with Berkeley in Bacon's Rebellion and was captured by Bacon's men. Thomas Lee (1690-1750) lived here while he was engaged in building Stratford Hall and was here when, in 1729, Matholic was set on fire and destroyed by persons who had been convicted while he sat as a justice.

At 9.8 m. on State 202 is a junction with County 611.

Left here to County 606, 1.6 m.

1. Left on County 6o6 to WILMINGTON (L), 0.3 m., a story-and-a-half frame structure with dormers, on a knoll and surrounded by old trees. John Newton, who came to Virginia with several sons, settled here in 1670. Soon after his arrival he married his third wife, Rose Tucker.

On County 606 at 1.2 m. is the junction with a private lane; R. 0. 1 m. to the SITE OF THE BANQUETING HOUSE (L), in Peckatown's (Peckatoan's) Field. This was a country club, built in 167o by the four planters whose estates met at this point-John Lee, Henry Corbin, Isaac Allerton, and Thomas Gerard-'for the continuance of good Neighborhood' and as a meeting-place for 'processioning the bounds . . . to make an Honourable treatment, fit to entertain the undertakers thereof, their wives, mistress & friends, yearly & every year, to begin upon the 29th of May (1671)'

On the private road is WILTON, 0.9 m., on a lawn bounded by a stream. Its thick brick walls, beautifully laid about 1685, rise two stories, with the glazed headers forming an attractive pattern. The large house is set between two outside chimneys that break the widely overhung eaves of the hipped roof. The small porches are later additions.

The estate was acquired in 1662 by Dr.Thomas Gerard, whose grandson, John Gerard, built this house. Wilton passed to the Eskridge family, then in 1737 to Richard Jackson.

Dr. Thomas Gerard was in 1639 'Lord of St. Clement's Manor' in Maryland. Though a member of the Governor's Council, this upright Catholic, for some strange reason, stole books and a key from a Protestant church and was forthwith fined. Later he became dissatisfied with conditions in Lord Baltimore's Proprietary and crossed the Potomac. After the death of his wife, Susannah Snow, Gerard married Rose, the widow of John Tucker, and she, after Gerard's death, married John Newton. Anne, one of Dr. Gerard's daughters, became the second wife of the immigrant, John Washington; and her sister Frances, his third wife.

2. Right on County 606 to another junction with County 611, 0. 1 M.; L. here 1.1 m. to County 661 and L. again to a private road, 1.7 m.; R. here to PECATONE, 2.2 m., by the Potomac. Ruins and one brick outbuilding remain of the house that was built in 1670 and destroyed by fire in 1888.

The estate was purchased in 1662 by Henry Corbin, who built the house. Corbin's grandson, Gawin, who inherited the estate from his father, married his cousin Hannah Lee, daughter of Colonel Thomas Lee. When Gawin died in 1759, Hannah Lee Corbin was the mistress of the estate. Heavily taxed, yet denied the right to vote, she protested bitterly against the injustice. 'I have wrote to my brother' (Richard Henry Lee), she wrote in 1778, '& I beg you will use your interest with him to do something for the poor desolate widows.' Her vigorous letter to Lee produced a long and understanding reply: 'The doctrines of representation is a large subject, and it is certain that it ought to be extended as far as wisdom and policy can allow; nor do I see that either of these forbid widows having property from voting, notwithstanding it has never been the practice either here or in England . . . I . . . would at any time give my consent to establish their right of voting.'

County 606 continues eastward, paralleling State 202; at 1.3 M. is YEOCOMICO CHURCH (see below); at 2.5 m. is a junction with County 604 (see below).

State 202 traverses a prosperous farm area and passes occasional patches of forest. At 11 m. is a junction with County 604.

Left here to County 606, 2.1 m., and L. again 1.2 m. (L) to YEOCOMICO CHURCH (keys at post office near by), in a shady, brick-walled yard in the woods. T-shaped and low, the church and its vestibule are covered by steep swagged roofs. Yeocomico (pronounced Yo-kom'-i-ko) was built in 1706 on the site of a frame church erected in 1655.

A small porch with floor of flagstone provides approach to the great door. Here the communicants have always paused, before and after services, to exchange greetings and to indulge in a bit of gossip. The main door is of heavy timbers and swings on clumsy wrought-iron hinges. Within are the original exposed beams of the roof's framework. The high-backed pews were destroyed by British soldiers during the War of 1812, when the building was used as a barracks. The lectern is part of the original furniture, as is the walnut communion table.

Yeocomico, still a church of Cople Parish, was used for a time after the Revolution as a courthouse and later by a Methodist congregation. An all-day 'home-coming,' usually on the third Sunday in July, is an annual event.

On County 604 is SANDY POINT (L), 5.5 m., by the Potomac. The present nondescript frame house, near a row of summer cottages, was erected about the middle of the nineteenth century on the site of the first house. About 1700 Colonel George Eskridge, a lawyer, acquired the estate. Formerly he had been a neighbor of Mary Ball's mother and, when Mary's mother died in 1721, her will appointed her'truly and wellbeloved friend,' Colonel Eskridge, one of her executors and her daughter's guardian. Here Mary Ban was living when she met her guardian's client, Augustine Washington, and here the parents of George Washington were married in 1731. In more recent years this estate was the home of the author, John Dos Passos.

At 13 m. on State 202 is a junction with State 203.

Left here to KINSALE, 1.6 m. (350 pop.), by a prong of the Yeocomico River. This shipping point and trade center, though constituted in 705, is not much larger now than it was during the late eighteenth century. The Yeocomico here is lovely at all seasons and at all hours, but especially so at twilight, when an old fishing boat, long anchored here, is starkly outlined against the horizon. Old homes and new are on the slopes above the river. On their lawns in the late evening, sociable folk often gather for oyster roasts. The oysters are tossed upon metal sheets that roof great outdoor fireplaces, then retrieved-rare, medium, or well-done-and served by the tough hands of professional oyster openers. Long tables are loaded with the pickles and sauces, the pride of local housewives.

On a bluff is the BAILEY GREAT HOUSE, with grounds terraced to the water's edge. The story-and-a-half frame structure, with walls of nogging, dormers, and end chimneys, is not the large house the name suggests. It serves as a lighthouse; in one of its windows a light has been placed every evening since about 1750. In its burial lot is the tomb of Midshipman James B. Sigourney, a native of Boston, who commanded the Asp during a battle fought in the cove before the house on July 14, 1813. After five barges of the British navy entered the river four of them retreated; the fifth, however, came alongside the Asp, giving the British the opportunity to rush onto the deck of the American ship. Finding her commander propped against a mast, fatally wounded but still directing his men, on of the enemy leveled a gun and ended the heroic defense.

CALLAO, 17.6 m. (100 pop.), with its filling stations, bank, and high school, spreads at the confluence of three roads.

Left from Callao on County 616 to LODGE, 2.2 m, a hamlet by a small stream. Here is the CHAMBERS ENGRAVING PLANT, which until 1928 made dies for postmarking the U.S. mail. The enterprise, begun in Washington in 1844 by Benjamin Chambers, was moved here in 1877.

At Callao the main route becomes US 360, on which at 19.5 m is a junction with County 624.

Left here to MOUNT ZION (L), 0.2 m. , a Victorian house on the site of one built about 1750 by Colonel Thomas Jones (1726-86). With Colonel Jones lived his much younger brother, Walter, who became 'Physician-General of Hospitals' during the Revolution.

At Mount Zion was born Thomas Catesby Jones (1789-1858), who served as a naval officer in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican War. In 1842, when he commanded the Pacific Squadron, he took possession of Monterey on receiving erroneous information that war existed between the United States and Mexico. His twin brother, Roger (1780-1852), served in the War of 1812 and was adjutant-general of the army from 1825 to 1852. It was his son, Catesby Roger Jones, who commanded the Virginia (Merrimac) during her engagement with the Monitor.

LEWISETTA, 7.0 m. (200 POP.), on a half -moon-shaped peninsula, at the mouth of the Coan River, is a shipping point, packing center, and a resort with summer cottages along the beach on the Potomac side. Across the river, on another peninsula, is Walnut Point. Sail vessels and motorboats ply the salty waters here.

At 24.2 m. is the entrance (L) to SPRINGFIELD, a large brick house with unusual, low wings. It was built by William Harding in 1828 on the site of a house called Black Point, which had been a home of John Heath (1761-1810), who organized the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 1776 while he was a student at the College of William and Mary. His son, James Ewell Heath (1792-1862), was one of the founders of the Southern Literary Messenger, and kept the publication alive during its first eight years. After anonymously publishing Edge Hill, or The Family of the Fitzroyals (1825), a two-volume romance of plantation life, he wrote a comedy, Whigs and Democrats, or Love of No Politics (1839) , to demonstrate that 'our own country furnishes ample material for the drama' as well as to ridicule 'the despicable arts of demagoguism.' Heath married his cousin Fannie, daughter of 'Parson' Mason Locke Weems.

HEATHSVILLE, 24.7 m. (200 POP.), seat of Northumberland County, is a shaded village of new and old houses. Named for the family of John Heath, the village was first called Hughlet's Tavern, then Heath's Store. Before the coming of bridges, its people, remote as they were from the centers of population, became fixed in habits of unhurried living. They have time for much reading, and they have not lost the art of conversation. Even recently, a judge adjourned court to chat with friends passing by. But there is little insular conservatism in Heathsville.

The NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE, erected in 1851 and enlarged in 1934, is a two-story brick structure with a hip roof and a veranda. When the first courthouse was being erected, Joseph Humphries and Captain Richard Haynie did 'oblige themselves joyntly in penal sum 140,000 pounds tobacco that said Humphries shall compleate the new court house according to contract by May 1706.' In the courthouse are the Clerk's Office, with ample county records and among many portraits of native sons and daughters those of General Walter Jones, General Roger Jones, Juliana Gordon Hayes, and Edward Bates, Attorney General of the United States under Lincoln.

Northumberland, originally an Indian district called Chickacoan (or Chickawane) and embracing all northern Virginia, was constituted a county in 1645. In 1648 it was formally named Northumberland for a county in England. The TAVERN, a long two-story frame building, has served court-day crowds for nearly two centuries.

At 26.3 m. is a junction with County 630.

Left here to County 629, 1.5 m., and L. 0.9 m. to a private road; R. here to MANTUA, 1.7 m., on a hill overlooking both the Coan River and the Potomac. The large brick house has huge end chimneys, slightly lower wings, and a two-story Doric entrance portico. There are six different floor levels. Mantua was built about 1795 by James Smith, who came from County Derry, Ireland, accumulated great wealth in Baltimore, and then settled here.

On County 630 at 1.9 m. is another junction with County 629; R. here 1.1 m. to FONT HILL (L), a dilapidated L-shaped frame house, birthplace of Juliana Gordon Hayes (1813-95), missionary and first president of the Women's Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, elected in 1878.

On County 630 is COAN HALL (L), 3.5 m., by the Coan River, the seat of a large estate with an ante-bellum residence and ante-bellum outbuildings. Here and along the bank of the river to the southward were the first settlements in northern Virginia.

The seat that John Mottrom established in 1640 soon became the headquarters of Protestants-and some Catholics-who had become disaffected with conditions at the 'Cittie of St. Marys' (Maryland).

Colonel Mottrom presented himself at Jamestown on November 20, 1645--the first representative in the house of burgesses from northern Virginia. When Northumberland County was constituted, his home became the county seat. Mottrom's daughter Frances, born here in 1645, became the wife of Governor Nicholas Spencer.

At 32.1 m. on US 36o is a junction with County 640.

Left here to County 604, 1.1 m., and R. to POTOMAC VIEW BEACH, 3.6 m., a small resort.

SHILOH BAPTIST CHURCH (R), at 34 m., a large frame building, has a congregation (Negro) formed in 1867 when another church granted its 38 Negro members permission to withdraw and organize as a separate body. On February 18, 1898, Shiloh Baptist Church organized 'The Moral Association' and adopted resolutions that declared: 'Matrimony was instituted of God in the time of man's innocency and should be highly commended, but licentiousness should be abhored as degrading in its tendency and ruinous in its consequences . . . that we consider the man who will, by his attention to a woman, lead her to believe that it is his desire to make her his companion for life, then rob her of her virtue and abandon her to fate, should be looked upon with scorn and contempt . . . that from this date any man who ruins the character of a woman . . . shall not be a welcome visitor to our house, but shall be considered as a vile libertine . . . and should be shunned as unworthy of the recognition of a gentleman.'

LILLIAN, 36.3 m. (75 pop.), where US 360 turns L., is at a junction with County 646.

Right (straight ahead) on County 646 to FAIRPORT, 2.7 m., a community spread along Cockrell's Creek.

Here are FACTORIES OF THE MENHADEN INDUSTRY, large brick and frame buildings with towering smokestacks. Here oil is extracted from menhaden, and fertilizer is manufactured from the residue. The fish-called also 'ale-wives'-of a variety not commonly used as food, are related to both shad and herring and resemble shad in form and color. They are caught in the Atlantic off the coast of Virginia and Maryland, from steamers equipped with 'purse nets' from 1,080 to 1,200 feet long. These nets are hauled between two row (purse) boats. When a school of fish is sighted by the lookout, the small boats are rowed parallel to each other until they reach 'striking distance.' Then the boats describe a circle in their course, each paying out its part of the net. When the boats meet, completing the circle, the ends of the net are fastened together, and a 'tom' (a ball of lead) is thrown overboard to form a fulcrum by which to 'purse' the net at the bottom. This is accomplished by means of a line attached to a ring in the tom and by other ropes passed through rings attached to the net at bottom and sides. The bottom of the net thus is brought together, forming a bag and enclosing the fish.

The steamer conveys its catch to the factory where the fish are boiled in large vats to extract the oil. Some steamers are equipped to 'cook' aboard during the fishing. The average catch is about 350,000 fish. The yield of oil is from five to six gallons per 1,000 fish. The product is marketed as whale oil, olive oil, and cod-liver oil, in diminutive bottles, the labels of which proclaim it as cure for many ills.

The JULIUS ROSENWALD TRAINING SCHOOL (R), at 37.7 m., is one of several schools for Negro youths instituted with the co-operation of State school departments and the philanthropy of Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932). In the frame two-story houses agriculture, shop-mechanics, home economics, and many other subjects are taught. This school, established in 1918, has an average enrollment of 400.

At 38.5 m. is a junction with County 657.

Left here to County 656, 1 m., and R. to CHESAPEAKE BEACH, 1.8 m., a resort on Chesapeake Bay (facilities for fishing and swimming).

REEDVILLE, 39 m. (700 POP.), on a narrow peninsula, is spread along a single street. It is the center of the menhaden industry and at the time of the World War was the richest town per capita in the United States. Reedville has sprung up since 1875 and was founded by Northerners. The upper part has all the ear-marks of a prosperous Northern suburb. At the lower end are wharves, where all manner of fishing craft tie up-often beside a dapper yacht or an immaculate Government launch.