Tour 23

Richmond-Goochland-Columbia-Scottsville-Charlottesvlle; 89.6 m. State 6, County 613, State 239.

Asphalt-paved throughout. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route between Richmond and Columbia. Hotels in Richmond and Charlottesville, few tourist homes between termini.

Between Richmond and Scottsville this route parallels the James River through fertile bottom lands, then winds north into the bills. For a short distance at the eastern end it has a trim modem appearance but it quickly settles down to the leisurely course of its ancestor, the primitive Indian trail that became the first westbound route of white men on the James. This route has great charm, looping gracefully through alternating stretches of woodland and open fields. It once joined Three Notched Road near Boyd's Tavern after turning north at Point of Fork along the Rivanna River. The Huguenots about Manakin were among the first to use it frequently.

In RICHMOND State 6 runs west from Capitol Square, 0 m., on Broad St. to the Boulevard, then west on Kensington Ave.

At 13.6 m. is a junction with County 649.

Left here to County 650, 1.1 m., and R. to TUCKAHOE: (L), 1.3 m., a large white frame house approached through an avenue of elms and designed in the severe style of the early period. It rises two stories from foundations of brick in Flemish bond and consists of two gabled structures connected by a thick hyphen, which completes an H-shaped plan reminiscent of a similar Elizabethan survival at Stratford Hall. Entrance is through formal little porches on front and river facades. The interior is paneled and decorated throughout with carved woodwork of great beauty. Most of the wood is pine, but black walnut gives a fine somber effect in the central hall or 'saloon,' in the stairway of the north wing, and in the 'Burnt Room,' once slightly damaged by fire-17 coats of paint were scraped from it during the restoration. The floral carving on the riser-ends and slender balusters of the stairway are notable. Doors, swinging on H-and-L hinges, have heavy, heraldically-decorated locks, and on certain of the small iridescent windowpanes are names cut with diamonds by eighteenth-century visitors.

Just south of the house, across the lawn that sweeps toward the river, stands the little brick school house in which Thomas Jefferson received part of his early education; his childish autograph is still on its plastered wall. Beyond lies an old-fashioned garden with one of the most elaborate box-labyrinths in America. Slave quarters and the detached old brick kitchen also stand near by.

The Tuckahoe lands were patented in 1695 by William Randolph of Turkey Island (see tour 24). This plantation he left to his son Thomas (1689-1730), who built the house perhaps as early as 1712.

Colonel Peter Jefferson, father of Thomas, was a friend of Thomas Randolph's son, William, who inherited the estate and married Jane, daughter of William's uncle, Isham Randolph. Thus it happened that Thomas Jefferson went to school here with the Randolph children.

William Byrd, visiting here in 1732 during a rain lasting several days, wrote: 'I learned all the tragical story of her [Mrs.Thomas Randolph's] daughter's humble marriage with her uncle's overseer'-a man without 'one visible qualification, except impudence.' The wine gave out, and Byrd could not fortify himself against 'vapors. . .laden with blight, coughs, and pleurisies,' except with endless doses of 'bark' and 'Indian physic.'

During the Revolution the Randolphs entertained officers of both armies. Captain Thomas Anbury, a British officer, onparole from the prison camp near Charlottesville, wrote in his diary, 'We found many gentlemen of this province very liberal and hospitable to British officers, among whom I may mention Messers, Randolph, of Tuckahoe, Goode, of Chesterfield, and Cary, of Warwick. In conversing with prisoners, they carefully refrain from politics. So warm and bigotted was the prevailing spirit, that those who exercised such courtesy incurred much criticism and censure. Some went so far on this account as to threaten to bum Colonel Randolph's Mills.'

The estate was named for Tuckahoe Creek, which Captain John Smith called'Tochawhoughe' (an edible water plant).

On County 650 is POWELL's TAVFRN (R), 1.7 m., a relic of the days when taverns such as this were placed along the River Road at intervals of about 12 miles. It consists of two buildings, one brick and one frame, close but unconnected.

At 15.4 m., by a junction with County 650, State 6 begins to follow the old River Road westward.

MANAKIN, 16.4 m. (150 POP.), stretching new and old houses about a single street, is the successor to Marmakin Towne (see Tour 8b), a Huguenot settlement south of the James River that was named for Monacan settlements near this point.

'Monsieur Marij, the minister of the Parish,' whom Byrd met here in 173 2, had been 'a Romish priest, but found reason, either spiritual or temporal, to quit that gay religion.' Observing more closely, the colonel wrote, 'He looks for as much respect from his Protestant flock, as is paid to the popish clergy, which our ill-bred Hugonots do not understand.'

The DOVER BAPTIST CHURCH (R), a rectangular frame building with a broad gabled roof and many windows, houses a congregation organized in 1773. The first minister was William Waller, who was locked in Chesterfield and Middlesex jails 'for preaching without authority except from above.'

This village was at the center of the Dover coal operations, the first successful commercial production of coal in America. After rich outcroppings had been discovered by a Huguenot hunter, Colonel William Byrd quickly patented the lands and in 1740-50 operations began. Bituminous coal was marketed as far north as Philadelphia until railroads brought cheaper coal from Pennsylvania.

At 19.1 m. is a junction with County 644.

Left here to SABOT, 0.1 m., named for a small island near by that seemed to Huguenot settlers to resemble the outline of a shoe. Sabot, now only a railroad station and a few paintless shacks, was for a time the prosperous village of Dover Mills. A large mill, operated by water from the James River and Kanawha Canal, was an important source of supply for the Confederates.

The entrance (R) to SABOT HILL is at 19.9 m. A modern brick house is on the site of one built in 1855 by James A. Seddon, United States congressman for many years and later Secretary of War for the Confederacy. When Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, ordered to make a surprise attack on Richmond for the purpose of releasing war prisoners, advanced through this region in 1864 with 5oo Federal cavalrymen, his soldiers burned the Seddon barns and sacked the house. He then attempted to. follow the north bank of the James River into Richmond. Though the city was virtually unprotected at the time, a small hastily assembled home guard turned back the Union cavalry. The expedition ended in Dahlgren's death in King and Queen County (see Tour 1).

CROZIER, 22.5 m., a few buildings and a post office gathered loosely along the highway, is near the SITE OF COXE's TAVERN, a stage stop.

The STATE FARM at 24.6 m. has accommodations in various nondescript brick and frame buildings for 750 male short-term and well-behaved longterm convicts from the State penitentiary and misdemeanants from the several sections of Virginia. Annually from 1,500 to 2,000 prisoners, convicted of minor offenses, serve sentences here. Penal reforms point to the replacement of county jails entirely by regional prisons such as this. The farm lands produce food for the use of the institution. There is also a 4opatient tuberculosis hospital here.

At 28 m. is a junction with State 49.

Left here to a bridge, 0.9 m., that is near the SITE OF MASSINACACK, an Indian village found by Captain Christopher Newport, who in 1608 set forth 'with 120 chosen men . . . for the discovery of Monacan.' Said one account of the trip, 'the people neither used us well nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke one of their petty Kings, and led him bound to conduct us the way.' John Lederer visited the village in 1670 and showed it on the map that accompanied the account of his exploration west of the Blue Ridge. South of the river is the VIRGINIA INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR Boys (R), 1.2 m., a reform school for delinquent youths committed by the juvenile and domestic relations courts. The number of boys in the school generally approximates the capacity of 280. The STATE INDUSTRIAL FARM FOR WOMEN (L), 28.6 m., is housed in several attractive dormitories of pink brick behind white fences on a 174-acre prison farm. The institution, where vocational training has been successfully employed, has accommodations for 100. The farm lies close to the riverside hamlet, Maidens, which used to be called Maidens Adventure and celebrates the legendary exploit of a young girl who is supposed to have crossed the river here to rescue her lover from Indian marauders.

GOOCHLAND, 29.1 m. (105 pop.), seat of Goochland County, is on open, rolling hills. The small group of structures sheltering rural commerce and county law practice and residences, old or new, surround GOOCHLAND COURTHOUSE (R), which is among trees within a brick-walled yard. The roof of this red brick building extends forward to form the pediment of a full-width portico with four Tuscan columns. Built in 1826, its design was undoubtedly copied from that of the pavilions at the University of Virginia, then under construction. The jail, constructed of uncut stone, was built in 1848. Goochland County, formed from Henrico in 1727, was the first Virginia county entirely in the Piedmont.

The most publicized of Goochland records are the marriage bond of the parents of Thomas Jefferson and a deed for Peter Jefferson's part of the Shadwell estate, which was transferred 'for and in consideration of Henry Weatherburn's biggest bowl of Arrack punch' (see Tour 17).

When Colonel Byrd visited Goochland in 1732 he wrote of a home just west of the county seat as 'a new settlement' in a 'retired part of the country.' 'A Goochland store,' he averred, was a place where 'the way of dealing . . . is for some small merchant or pedler to buy a Scots pennyworth of goods, and clap one hundred and fifty per cent upon that.'

BELMONT (R), at 30.5 m., is the farm on which was born Edward Bates (1793-1869), United States Attorney General during the War between the States. The house has been destroyed. Taken by his father, Thomas Fleming Bates, to Missouri when he was 10, years old, Bates in time reached the National legislature, where he became a passionate antislavery candidate for Republican nomination to the presidency.

At 33.4 m. is a junction with County 625.

Left here to BOLLING HALL (L), 1.9 m., a large two-story frame house, built early in the nineteenth century by Colonel William Bolling (see Tour 19). A conservatory at one end of the house was a notable feature when it was erected.

At 3.9 m. is a junction with County 627; L. here to County 600, 2.6 m., and R. to ROCK CASTLE (R), 3.6 m., where a modern brick house with a neo-Tudor air takes precedence over the old white frame house, probably built before 1732 by Tarleton Fleming. Tiny dormer windows in the old gabled roof with hipped ends light a half story. In 1732 Colonel Byrd said that Mrs.Fleming, former a Miss Mary Randolph of Tuckahoe, was 'packing up her baggage with design to follow her husband . . . who was gone to a new settlement in Goochland.' He added that Mr. and Mrs.Fleming had 'been about seven years persuading themselves to remove to that retired part of the country.' When Colonel Tarleton, raiding during the Revolution, found the Tarleton coat-of-arms hanging here, he angrily cut down the plaque and carried it away.

GEORGES TAVERN, 39.7 m., a crossroads settlement of half a dozen houses, carries on the name of a vanished stage inn on the River Road.

Left from Georges Tavern on State 45 to HOWARDS NECK (R), 4.1 m., a plantation that has been the home of Randolphs, Cunninghams, and Hobsons. The red brick house, built about 1825 after plans of Robert Mills, is nearly square, with a broad hip roof. Well-spaced windows with shutters break the wall surfaces, which are set off by the white stone of lintels and of ornamental plaques set midway between each pair of window opening. A formal porch is half hidden by tree-box. Edward Cunningham built his house front of a much older frame one constructed early in the eighteenth century by the first settler here, a Randolph.

At 7.7 m. is a junction with County 602; R. here 3 m. to AMPTHILL, a one-story red brick house facing the fertile lowlands along the James. Its fine portico has four Tuscan columns. Large windows with shutters and white marble lintels take up much of the wall space between a high basement and a severe cornice.

To Randolph Harrison, who married Thomas Jefferson's granddaughter, Jefferson wrote in 1815: 'I have had leisure to think of your house. You seemed to require six rooms, neither more nor less, and a good entrance or passage of communication. The enclosed is drawn on that plan. The ground plat is in detail, and exact, the elevation is merely a sketch to give a general idea. The workman, if he is anything of an architect, will be able to draw the particulars. Affectionately yours . . .'This house appears to have been constructed, however, sometime between the death of Mrs. Harrison in 1835 and her husband's death, four years later. And then only part of Jefferson's plan was used.

Joined to the rear of the house by a wide passage chamber is the much older frame dwelling constructed about 1732, soon after these frontier lands were first taken up. Similar in outline and parallel to the newer part, it has two stories beneath its hip roof and low wings. The central staircase has carved paneling. Near by stand several of the old brick outbuildings.

At 40.7 m. on State 6 is a junction with County 608.

Left here to a lane (L), 1.6 m., the entrance to ELK HILL, a gray-stuccoed brick house high on a hill among box bushes and a grove of elms. Thomas Jefferson inherited this estate from his father-in-law. At the approach of the British in May 1781, Mrs. Jefferson and her little family fled to her husband at Monticello and left Elk Hill to Cornwallis, who made it his headquarters from June 7 to 15, 1781, while waiting for Colonel Tarleton to return from Charlottesville with Governor Jefferson and the Virginia legislature in tow. When Tarleton turned up empty-handed, Cornwallis marched east ward, leaving the house ransacked, supplies destroyed, livestock killed, and with Jefferson's slaves as booty.

Elk Hill was again sacked in 1865, this time by Sheridan's raiders.

COLUMBIA, 46.3 m. (154 pop.), at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers, is a collection of frame houses and country stores, filling stations, and a saw mill with attendant lumber yards. Rising on the site of Rassawek, capital of the Monacans, this was called Point of Fork until an act of the general assembly in 1788 directed that land here 'shall be laid off with convenient streets, and shall be established as a town by the name of Columbia.' Later the town became important as the meeting place of two canals. Produce from the north was floated down the Rivanna and its tributaries as early as 1756, for in that year the Reverend James Fontaine Maury of Albemarle wrote, 'Nothing is more common than to see two of these tottering vehicles [flatboats], when lashed together side by side, carrying down our upland streams eight or nine heavy hogsheads of tobacco.'

In the latter part of the Revolution, Baron von Steuben, then in charge of Virginia militia, commanded a training post and supply depot here. When he thought that the forces of Simcoe and Tarleton were about to converge here, von Steuben moved the stores and most of his force across the Rivanna. On Simcoe's arrival he retreated, abandoning most of the supplies.

In 1783 an ammunition and ordnance depot was established here, and in 1792 a contract was given for the movement of military supplies from Richmond. In March 1865 Columbia was raided by General Sheridan.

At 50.9 m., by the rural post office DIXIE, is a junction with US 15 (see Tour 3) which unites with State 6 to FORK UNION, 53.1 m.

SCOTTSVILLE, 69.5 m. (341 pop.), serves the neighborhood as shopping center and awakes to mild hilarity on Saturday nights. It was the seat of Albemarle County until Charlottesville was established in 1762. Later it became the terminal of the James River-Staunton Turnpike.

At the outskirts of the village on Warren St. is CHESTER, a two-story frame house built in 1747 by Joseph Wright, a retired English gardener who designed the formal gardens.

At 70.1 m., R. on County 613, a narrow, somewhat rough hard-surfaced road, now the main route, that dips and winds among the foothills of the Blue Ridge. Between Scottsville and Charlottesville are many small 4 gentlemen's estates.'

GLENDOWER (L), 73.6 m., a large brick house with a wide, two-tiered portico, was built about 1808 by Samuel Dyer.

At KEENE, 75.8 m., an almost invisible hamlet, county roads branch in five directions.

1. Right from Keene on County 712 to County 713, 1.6 m.

a. Right on County 713, 0.3 m., to CHMST CmiRcH (R), a rectangular brick structure with gabled roof and full entablature. It was built in 1831-32 and dedicated Bishop Meade. The chancel rail and gallery are as the originally were. St.Anne's Church is the successor to the Forge Church of St. Anne s Parish, which was formed from St. James's Parish in 1745.

b. Left from County 712 0.1 m. on County 713 to PLAIN DEALING (L), an informal two-story frame house with brick ends. Samuel Dyer, who bought the place in 1787, incorporated the small house he found here as a wing of the present structure.

2. Left from Keene on County 712 to ESTOUTEVILLE (R), 1.5 m., a large red brick house behind a formal Doric portico. The large central part is flanked by one-story wings. Construction of the house was begun by John Coles III in 1828 according to plans drawn by James Dinsmore, a Philadelphian who for io years assisted Jefferson with architectural work. The So ox skulls in bas-relief, in the hall frieze, were carved in Charlottesville at a cost of $5 each.

The first house here, built in i8oo, was named Calycanthus Hill. A Coles marriage with a member of the Skipwith family of Mecklenburg County caused the place to be renamed for the Norman baron d'Estouteville, an ancestor of the Skipwiths.

At 1.6 m. is a junction with County 627; L. here 0.7 m. to ENTNISCORTILY (R), a large comfortable-looking brick house, with a square two-story unit having a hip roof and flanked by lower wings. It was built in the 1850's to replace a house burned in 1840. About 1769 John Coles II, of Hanover, settled here on land named for the family seat in Leinster, Ireland.

The Cabin,' a little brick cottage overlooking wide gardens, was probably the first house Coles built on his lands.

At 2 m. on County 627 is the entrance (R), through handsome Italian wrought-iron gates, to TALLWOOD, a two-story brick house, its main section woodsheathed. Additions to the one-story wings have given rise to a local jest that the house has both wings and pinions. Each of the four chimneys has four arches protecting the flue. The detail of the carved mantel in the living room is exceptionally fine. Tucker Coles built Tallwood between 1810 and 1827 on his share of the Enniscorthy estate.

At 4.4 m. on County 712 is EDGEMONT (L), a small frame structure of fine proportions. Rising one generous story from a stone basement to a sweeping hip roof pierced by slender chimneys, the square structure displays Roman Doric porticoes on three sides. Centered on the fourth side, opposite the main entrance, Is the projecting bay of an octagonal salon. Every element of the design is characteristic of Jefferson's best plans. The walls were originally painted to simulate stone block construction.

Colonel James Powell Cocke, suffering from malaria, traded his James River home, Malvern Hills, for Robert Nelson's estate here in the more salubrious mountain air. Plans for the house, dated 1806, have been identified in the Coolidge Collection of Jef. fersoniana.

RUINS OF VIEWMONT (R), 78.2 m., hulks of two great buttressed chimneys, are all that remain of a fine frame dwelling burned in 1939. Colonel Joshua Fry, who was already living here in 1744, entertained Dr.Thomas Walker during his explorations in 1749-50. In 1786 the estate was purchased by Governor Edmund Randolph.

CARTER'S BRIDGE, 79.1 m., is at a junction with County 627 (see Tour 23A), an alternate route into Charlottesville.

BLUE RIDGE SANATORIUM (R), 88.1 m., is a State institution for the treatment of tubercular patients. Its gray stuccoed buildings, on elevated land, accommodate 2 70 patients.

At 88.3 m. this route is rejoined by Tour 23A (see Tour 23A); L. here on State 239, the main route into CHARLOTTESVILLE, 89.6 m. (480 alt., 15,245 pop.) (see Charlottesville).

Tour 23A

Junction with County 613-Monticello-Ash Lawn-Carter's Bridge; 11.2 m. State 239 and County 627.

Asphalt-paved roadbed between junction with County 613 and Ashlawn; gravel Ashlawn to Carter's Bridge. No accommodations.

This route winds through the foot hills, passing the homes of James Monroe and Thomas Jefferson, and several less noteworthy estates.

State 239 branches southeast from a junction with County 613, 0 m., at a point 1.3 miles south of Charlottesville (see Tour 23).

MICHIE TAVERN (R), 0.7 m. (open 9-5 daily, adm. $0.50), is a small rectangular frame building painted white that was moved in 1927 from its original site northwest of Charlottesville. The oldest part of the inn, built before 1740, has fine interior woodwork. It was enlarged about 1763, not long after Major John Henry, father of Patrick Henry, had sold it to John Michie. It contains Colonial tavern furnishings.

MONTICELLO (Oen 8-5 daily; adm. $0.50), 1.2 m:, is approached by a private road that winds up through woods from a brick lodge. The notable mansion, on the leveled top of a 'little mountain,' looks across a wide lawn shaded by scattered trees to far horizons, embracing the crest of the Blue Ridge and many miles of the Piedmont.

The red brick house with snow-white trim, roughly oval in plan and in a green frame of trees, is an example of Classical Revival design. To the southwest it presents a fine Roman Doric portico before the projecting end of a salon designed in the French manner. The room is topped by a large white-domed octagonal clerestory with circular windows. Behind a similar portico, the eastern and newer side has a low second story with half windows immediately above the lintels of the first floor windows, and a half story set back inconspicuously. The whole, tied together by a balustraded parapet and by a continuous Doric entablature, seems much smaller than it is. The house is at the center of a formal plan that embraces sunken and terrace-covered passages leading away from it on both sides to small templelike pavilions at the far ends of service quarters set in the hillside.

The interior is distinguished by beauty of woodwork and many evidences of Jefferson's ingenuity. The large entrance hall opens, beneath a balcony, into the salon. Lateral halls lead to four chambers, to the dining room with monumentally proportioned arches over alcove, and to Jefferson's study. Two steep staircases, hidden in closetlike alcoves because the builder regarded stairs as unattractive architectural features, lead to low bedrooms above the high first floor and to a 'ballroom' in the cupola.

Jefferson loved a gadget and invented many clever devices still in use. At Monticello are dumb-waiters, disappearing beds, unusual lighting and ventilating arrangements, one of his duplicate-writing machines, the forerunner of the one-arm lunch chair, folding doors of the type now used in streetcars-all devised by the builder of Monticello, who attached a contrivance to a wheel of his carriage to record the revolutions. Over the entrance is an extraordinary clock with a series of weights and pulleys that are incongruous in the formal room.

Assimilating the Graeco-Roman designs of. Palladio and using materials -even nails-made by his slaves on the spot, Jefferson began building with painstaking care from his own design in 1770 and by 1775 had completed the western part, including a two-tiered portico. In 1771 after Shadwell (see Tour 17a) burned, he moved into the first completed pavilion and a year later he brought his bride to it on horseback through a blizzard. Stimulated by what he saw on his European travels, he enlarged the house between 1796 and 1809 in a style even more Roman, making it an example of classical design adapted to its environment and uses. Jefferson was the leader in as purifying a movement in architecture as in government. 11is careful symmetrical arrangement, the drawing room with an octagonal bay and the emphasized white portico, had a far-reaching influence in developing the style of architecture now called Early Republican or Federal. The Marquis de Chastellux, visiting here as early as 1782, wrote later: 'We may safely aver that Mr. Jefferson is the first American who has consulted the fine arts to know how he should shelter himself from the weather.' Though the house has great interest it is less satisfactory from an architectural point of view than others Jefferson designed.

During Jefferson's last years Monticello was a mecca for all distinguished travelers, European and American. He often received 40 or 50 guests a day in spite of his love of quiet for study and contemplation, which he rarely achieved except at Poplar Forest (see Tour 11).

Soon after Jefferson's death in 1826 the house and estate were sold for his only surviving child, Mrs. Martha Jefferson Randolph. Much hospitality and generosity had helped to impoverish a 'founding father' who never indulged in speculation. Generally valued at more than $70,000, the house and remaining 552 acres were bought in 1831 in a depressed market for a tenth of that amount by a Mr. Barkley, who had newly come to the neighborhood, disliked Jefferson, and largely destroyed his gardens. When Barkley's silk worm project failed after three years, there was an abortive movement by the Federal Government to buy the place as a National monument. Two hundred and eighteen acres and the house were bought for $2,500 and partly restored by Uriah Levy, who admired Jefferson. But after 1839 he turned it over to tenants and gradual ruin. The house was confiscated in 1861 and the furnishings were sold. After the war, however, Monticello was restored to Commodore Uriah Levy, who recovered some of the furniture and attempted to leave Jefferson's house to the Nation or to the people of Virginia. His will having been broken, a nephew, Jefferson Levy, acquired full possession, restored the house, and enlarged the estate to about 2,000 acres. In 1923 he sold Monticello and 650 acres for $500,000, to the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, successor to another association organized for the same purpose in 1912.

Thomas Jefferson was born near by at Shadwell (see Tour 17a), the farm of his father, Peter Jefferson, on April 13, 1743. His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph. In 1760, after attending school in several places, Jefferson entered an advanced class at the College of William and Mary. He was admitted to the bar in 1767. Entering the house of burgesses in 1769, he became almost at once the author of the first American antislavery bill, which failed, however, of passage. His marriage in 1772 to Mrs. Martha Wayles Skelton doubled his fortune. The next year he helped devise the intercolonial activities of the Committees of Correspondence and was a member of the Virginia Committee. He was only 32 when sent to the Continental Congress in 1775 and only 33 when he phrased the Declaration of Independence.

In 1779 Jefferson succeeded Patrick Henry as governor of Virginia and while in office wrote the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom. He served his country as minister to France during the years 1785-89 and was thus abroad at the time of the Constitutional Convention. His known aversion to strengthening the Federal Government caused considerable concern to Washington and Madison, who kept him apprised of what was going on and endeavored to disarm the objection they knew he would raise. On his return he reluctantly agreed to argue out his objections privately provided the sponsors would move immediately after adoption for inclusion of a bill of rights. Washington appointed him the first Secretary of State. It was as antagonist of Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, that he drew to his side the agrarian, democratic, antifederal elements throughout the States, enabling him to found the Democratic (then Republican) party, to become Vice President in 1797, and third President in 1801. The most important acts during his two terms in office were the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the promotion of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and his advocacy of the Embargo Act of 1807. After his retirement from public life in 1809, Jefferson devoted much of his time to promoting education. In 1819 he founded the University of Virginia. America's 'great commoner' died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.

His self-composed epitaph on a simple shaft in the graveyard reads:

Here was buried

Thomas Jefferson

Author of the Declaration of American Independence of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom and

Father of the University of Virginia.

At Monticello, State 239 becomes County 627. At 2.5 m. is a junction with County 732.

Left here to TUFTON (L), 0.6 m., an unobtrusive country house on part of the first estate patented in Albemarle by Colonel Peter Jefferson. The middle section of the house-of logs covered with weatherboarding-was built about 1790 by Thomas Jefferson. The rear wing--of stone-was built by Thomas Jefferson's grandson, Thomas J. Randolph, and the brick part, in front, about 1833 by a later owner.

At 3.6 m. on County 627 is the entrance (R) to ASH LAWN (adm. $0.50), a plain frame structure of two stories with a low one-story L at the rear. It stands on a hill at the head of a long lawn studded with great ash trees, lofty Norway pines, dwarf and tree boxwoods, magnolias, rhododendron, and English ivy. James Monroe built this house to be near his friend and mentor, Thomas Jefferson. During his hard years as minister to France he wrote yearningly to Jefferson 'of the house to be built in two sections, a part to be finished first and the whole to cost not more than three or four thousand dollars.' But Monroe completed only the small rear part of Ash Lawn, and this between 1796-98. From that time until 182o, he constantly returned to Ash Lawn as a refuge from troublous experiences. After 182o he lived at Oak Hill (see Tour 3a).

James Monroe (1758-1831) was born in Westmoreland County (see Tour 16a). The early part of his career, including his attendance at the College of William and Mary, soldiering during the Revolution, practice of law, and election to the Virginia Constitutional Convention, the Virginia general assembly, and the United States Senate, was not unlike that of several other ambitious young Virginians of the time. First the disciple, then the trusted friend of Thomas Jefferson, he was finally the man who completed the work the aging Jefferson was unwilling to continue. In 1794 he served as envoy to France, from 1799 to 1802 as Governor of Virginia; in 1803 he was sent abroad by Thomas Jefferson to assist in the negotiations over a port of deposit on the Mississippi that resulted in the Louisiana Purchase, and remained abroad as minister to England and later to Spain; he became Secretary of State and later Secretary of War under Madison and President of the United States from 1817 to 1825. As President he brought to a close boundary disputes between the United States and Great Britain, eliminated fortifications from the Canadian border, effected the purchase of Spanish Florida, and enunciated the doctrine that bears his name. Like Jefferson and Madison, Monroe opposed slavery. As early as 1801, he corresponded with Jefferson concerning the possibility of settling Negroes in Africa. Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, is his namesake.

The 16-foot marble STATUE OF MONROE on the lawn is by Attilio Picdrilli. Commissioned by the Venezuela government, Piccirilli finished the figure after a revolutionary movement in Venezuela had placed in power officials who did not appreciate the Monroe Doctrine as much as did their predecessors. The statue stood in a New York studio from the 1880's until 1931.

MORVEN (R), 5 m., is a tall stone house built about 1820 by David Higginbotham. Prior to the construction of the present house, this spot was the home of William Short, minister to the Netherlands during Washington's administration. The estate was first called Indian Camp because of the ruins of an Indian village in the neighborhood. The extensive oldfashioned garden has recently been formalized.

ELLERSLIE (R), 7.2 m., is a square, red brick house among white-fenced fields. The Ellerslie Stud, operated for the past half century here and in Kentucky, was established by Captain Richard Hancock, a Louisiana Confederate veteran who recovered from wounds in this section and married. Gallant Fox and Omaha, both outstanding winners on American turf, and the renowned sire Wrack were from Ellerslie stables.

At 7.6 m. is a junction with County 727.

Left here to BLENHEIM (L), 0.5 m., a long, low frame house with a pair of formal entrance porches on the front. The gable roof is punctuated by small dormers and three chimneys. In this house, one of two John Carter maintained on this plantation, lived his son, Edward.

In 1836 Blenheim became the home of Andrew Stevenson. During the period (1836-41) when he was American minister to England, Mrs. Stevenson-Sarah Coles of Enniscorthy received a barrel of Albemarle pippins from friends. In her note of thanks she wrote, 'They were eated and praised by royal lips . . . Mr. Stevenson proposed sending two dozen to the Queen . . . and dining with Lord Durham soon after, he told me my apples had created a sensation at the palace . . .' Queen Victoria, so the story goes, became a steady customer of the pippin growers of Albemarle and regularly served this crisp, juicy apple.

At 11.1 m. on County 627 is a junction with County 708.

Left here to REDLANDS (L), 0.2 m., a tall brick house soberly designed. It was built in 1798 by Robert Carter, on part of the large tract patented here by his grandfather, John Carter, Secretary of the Colony and eldest son of Robert 'King' Carter.

At 11.2 m. County 627 rejoins County 613 (see Tour 23) at Carter's Bridge, a point 10.5 miles south of Charlottesville.