are, and consequently whether Friends or Enemies. This is a Piece of Knowledge on which great Consequences depend; therefore, they who excell in it are highly esteemed, because three Discoveries enable them to ambuscade their Enemies, as well as to evade Surprises from them; and also to escape from a superior Number by a timely Discovery of their numerous Tracts. One terrible war-like Nation gives them more of this speculative Trouble than all others: These are the, Sennagars, a numerous People seated near the Lakes of Canada, who live by Depredation and Rapine on all other Indians, and whole whole Employment is to range in Troops all over the northern Continent, plundering and murdering all that will not submit: Women and Children they carry away captive, and incorporate with themselves. By this Policy they are numerous and formidable to all the Nations of Indians from their northern Abodes to the Gulph of Florida, except some few who pay them Tribute for their Safe-guard.

If a Prisoner attempts to escape they cut his Toes and half his Feet off, lapping the Skin over the Stump, and make a present Cure. This commonly disables them from making their Escape, they not being so good Travellers as before; besides, the Impression of their half Feet making it easy to trace them.

In their War-Expeditions they have certain Hieroglyphicks, whereby each Party informs the other of the Successes or Losses they have met with; all which is so exactly performed by their Sylvan Marks and Characters, that they are never at a Loss to understand one another.


Their Drunkenness

The Savages are much addictted to Drunkenness, a Vice they never were acquainted with till the Christians came amongst them. Rum is their beloved Liquor, which the English carry amongst them to purchase Skins and other Commodities with. After taking a Dram they are insatiable till they are quite drunk, and then they quarrel, and often murder one another, though at other Times they are the freest from Passion of any People in the World. They are very revengeful, and never forget an Injury till they have received Satisfaction, yet they never call any Man to account for what he did when he was drunk, but lay it was the Drink that caused his Misbehaviour; therefore he ought to be forgiven.


Their Wars

Indians ground their Wars on Enmity, not Interest, as Europeans generally do; for the Loss of the meanest Person of the Nation they will go to War, and lay all at Stake, and prosecute their Design to the utmost, till the Nation they were injured by be wholly destroyed. They are very politick in carrying on their War, by advising with the ancient Men of Conduct and Reason that have been War-Captains; they have likewise Field-Counsellors, who are accustomed to Ambuscades and Surprizes, in which consists their greatest Atchievements; for they have no Discipline, nor regular Troops, nor did I ever hear of a Field-Battle fought amongst them. A Body of Indians will travel four or five Hundred Miles to surprise a Town of their Enemies, travelling by Night only, for some Days before they approach the Town. Their usual Time of Attack is at Break of Day, when, if they are not discovered, they fall on with dreadful Slaughter, and Scalping, which is to cut off the Skins of the Crown from the Temples, and taking the whole Head of Hair along with it as if it was a Night-cap: Sometimes they take the Top of the Scull with it; all which they preserve, and carefully keep by them for a Trophy of their Conquest. Their Caution and Temerity is such, that at the least Noise, or Suspicion of being discovered, tho' at the Point of Execution, they will give over the Attack, and retreat back again with Precipitation.

Part of an Enterprize of this Kind I chanced to be a Witness of, which was thus: Some Chigasaws, a Nation of Indians inhabiting near the Mississipi River, being at Variance with the French, seated themselves under Protection of the English near Fort Moor on Savanna River: With five of these Indians and three white Men we let out to hunt; after some Days Continuance with good Success, at our returning back, our Indians being loaded with Skins, and Barbacued Buffello, we espied at a Distance a strange Indian, and at length more of them appeared following one another in the same Tract as their Manner is: Our Five Chigasaw Indians perceiving three to be Cherikee Indians and their Enemies, being alarm'd, squatted, and hid themselves in the Bushes, while the rest of us rode up to the Cherikees, who then were increased to above twenty: After some Parley we took our Leave of each other, they marching on towards their Country, and we homeward; in a short time we overtook our Chigasaws, who had hid their Loads, and were painting their Faces, and tripping up every little Eminence, and preparing themselves against an Assault. Tho' the Cherikees were also our Friends, we were not altogether unapprehensive of Danger, so we separated from our Indian Companions, they shortening their Way by crossing Swamps and Rivers, while we with our Horses were necessitated to go further about, with much Difficulty and a long March, for Want of our Indian Guides. We arrived at the Fort before it was quite dark: About an hour after, while we were recruiting our exhausted Spirits, we

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