ply their Wars. This probably has occasioned the depopulated State of North America at the Arrival of the Europeans who by introducing the Vices and Distempers of the old World, have greatly contributed even to extingnish the Race of that Savage, who it is generally believ'd were at first four, it not six tines as numerous as they now are. I shall now conclude my Account of the Indians, in which I might have been more prolix, but I chose rather to confine myself to what I learn'd by a personal Knowledge of them; and as Natural History is the Subject of this Book, I conceive It impertinent to relate tedius Narratives or Religious Ceremonies, Burials, Marriagess, & c. which are too often the Product Invention, or Credulity in the Relater. Indians being so reserv'd and avers'd to reveal their secret Mysteries to Europeans, that the Relations of the most inquisitive can be but little depended on.


Of the Agriculture of Carolina.

The Lands of America from a Series of Years hive accummulated litch a Coat of prolifick Soil that Tillage is in a manner useless. So soon as the Fertility of a Field is exhausted by repeated Crops, they take down the Fence which inclosed it, and let it lie as useless; this Fence is removed to another fresh Piece of land, some of which yields them plentiful Crops twenty Years successively without Respite, or any other tillage than with an Hough, to raise the Earth where the Grain is drop'd. At a Planter's entering on fresh Land, he is neccessitated first to clear it of a vast Burden of large Trees and Under-wood; so much of which as is moveable is piled in Heaps, and burned, the Trunks being left to rot, which is usually effected in six or eight Years; in the mean time Maiz, Rice, &c. is sown between the prostrate Trees.

The Fields are bounded by wooden Fences, which are usually made of Pine split into Rails of about 12 or 14 Feet long; the frequent removing of these Fences to fresh Land, and the Necessity of speedy erecting them are partly the Reasons why Hedges are not hitherto made Use of, besides the Facility of making wooden Fences in a Country abounding in Trees.


Frumentum Indicum. Maiz dictum.

Of the Grain Pulse, Roots, Fruit and Herbage, with their Cultivation.

Indian Corn.

This is the Native Grain of America, from whence other Parts of the World were at first supplyed: It agrees with all Climates horn the Equinoctial to the Latitude of 45. Yet the Climate which best agrees with it, and produces the fairest and largest Corn, is that between the Degrees of 30 ans 40. Of this Grain there are reckoned two Sorts, differing in Stature, largeness of the Spike and Grain, and different Tine of ripening, besides accidental Variety in the Colours of the Grain. The largest is cultivated in Virginia and Carolina. It is usually planted in April, and the largest ripeneth not 'till October, and is frequently left standing in the Field 'till December before it is gather'd in: The smaller Grain opening in hall the Time of the large recommends it to the Indians, who according to their Custom do not provide Corn for the whole Winter; this by its quick ripening affords theta early Food, and is therefore by them most propagated: This Kind is also cultivated in New England, where Heat is defficient for ripening the larger Kind, and it is also propagated in Languedoc and in some Parts of Italy, and in kindly Summers will come to Maturity in England, as I myself have experienced. The large Kind grows usually nine or ten Feet high. The smaller Sort grows commonly five or six Feet high, and sometimes in strong Land, to the Height of fourteen Feet. The smaller Sort grows commonly five or six Feet high. In planting this Corn, six or eight Grains are drop'd in the Circumferance of about thirty Inches, and covered with a Hough: When it appears some Inches above Ground, the Supernumeraries, if any, are pulled up, and three left in a Triangle to grow, they are also weeded, and Earth raised about them with a Hough: which being repeated three or four Times in the Summer, raises a Hill about them. After the Corn is come up some small Height, there are drop'd into every Hill two or three Beans called Bonavis, which as they shoot up are supportid by the Stalks of the Corn, and are ripe and gathered before the Corn. These Hills of Corn are at the Distance of about four Feet or under, regularly planted in lines or quincunx Order: in June the Plants are suckered, i. e. stipping, off the superfluous Shoots. In August are topped, and their

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