their Blades stripped off, and tied in small Bundles for Winter Provender for Horses and Cattle. About the same time the Spikes or Ears of Corn, that grow erect naturally, are bent down to prevent Wet entering the Hulk that covers the Grain, and preserves it from rotting. In October, which is the usual Harvest Month, the Spikes of Corn with their Husks are cut off from the Stalks, and housed, and in that Condition is preserved till it is wanted for Use. It is then taken out of the Husk, and the Grain separated from the Placenta or Core. Then it is made Saleable, or fit for Use. This Grain, in Virginia or Carolina, is of most general Use, and is eat not only by the Negro Slaves, but by the Generality of white People. Its easy Culture, great Increase and above all its strong Nourishment, adapts it to the Use of these Countries as the properest Food for Negro Slaves, some of which, at a Time when, by the Scarcity of this Grain, they were obliged to eat Wheat, found themselves so weak that they begged of their Master to allow them Indian Corn again, or they could not work. This was told me by the Hon. Col. Byrd of Virginia, whole Slaves they were, adding, that he found it his Interest to comply with their Request.

It is prepared various Ways, though but three principally; the first is baking it in little round Loaves, which is heavy, though very sweet and pleasant, while it is new. This is called Pone.

The second is called Mush, and is made of the Meal, in the Manner of Hasty-Pudding; this is eat by the Negroes with Cider, Hog's-lard, or Molasses.

The third Preparation is Homony, which is the Grain boiled whole, with a Mixture of Bonavis, till they are tender, which requires right or ten Hours; to this Homony is usually added Milk or Butter, and is generally more in Esteem than any other Preparation of this Grain. The Spikes of this Corn, before they become hard, are the principal Food of the Indians during three Summer Months; they roast them in the Embers, or before a Fire, and eat the Grains whole. The Indians prepare this Grain for their long Marches by parching and beating it to Powder, this they carry in Bags, and is always ready, only mixing with it a little Water at the next Spring.


Oriza: Rice.

This beneficial Grain was first planted in Carolina, about the Year 1688, by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, then Governor of that Province, but it being a small unprofitable Kind little Progress was made in its Increase. In the Year 1696 a Ship touched there from Madagascar by Accident, and brought from thence about Half Bushel of a much fairer and larger Kind, from which small Stock it is increased as at present.

The first Kind is bearded, is a small Grain, and requires to grow wholly in Water. The other is larger, and brighter, of a greater Increase, and will grow both in wet and tolerable dry Land. Besides these two Kinds, there are none in Carolina materially different, except small Changes occasioned by different Soils, or Degeneracy by succesive sowing one Kind in the same Land, which will cause it to turn red.

In March and April it is sown in shallow Trenches made by the Hough, and good Crops have been made without any further Culture than dropping the Seeds on the bare Ground and covering it with Earth, or to little Holes made to receive it without any further Management. It agrees best with a rich and moist Soil, which is usually two Feet under Water, at least two Months in the Year. It requires several Weedings till it is upward of two Feet high, not only with a Hough, but with the Assistance of Fingers. About the middle of September it is cut down and housed, or made into Stacks till it is thresh'd, with Flails, or trod out by Horses or Cattle; then to get off the outer Coat or Husk, they use a Hand-Mill, yet there remains an inner Film which clouds the Brightness of the Grain, to get off which it is beat in large wooden Mortars, and Pestles of the same, by Negro Slaves, which is very laborious and tedious. But as the late Governor Johnson (as he told me) had procured from Spain a Machine which facilitates the Work with more Expedition, the Trouble and Expense ('tis hoped) will be much mitigated by his Example.

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