Pomegranates being equally tender with Oranges, require the like
Salt-Water Situation; yet I remember to have seen them in great
Perfection in the Gardens of the Hon. William Byrd, Esq;
in the Freshes of James River in Virginia.
Grapes are not only spontaneous in Carolina, but all the
northern Parts of America, from the Latitude of 25 to 45,
the Woods are so abundantly replenished with them, that in some
Places for many Miles together they cover the Ground, and are an
Impediment to Travellers, by entangling their Horses Feet with their
trayling Branches; and lofty Trees are over-top'd and wholly obscured
by their Embraces. From which indications one would conclude; that
these Countries were as much adapted for the Culture of the Vine,
as Spain or Italy, which lie in the same Latitude.
Yet, by the Efforts that have been hitherto made in Virginia
and Carolina, it is apparent, that they are not blest
with that Clemency of Climate, or Aptitude for making Wine, as the
parallel Parts of Europe, where the Seasons are more equal,
and the Spring not subject, as in Carolina, to the Vicissitudes
of Weather, and alternate Changes of Warmth and Cold, which, by
turns, both checks and agitates the rising Sap, by which the tender
Shoots are often cut off. Add to this the ill Effects they are liable
to by too much Wet, which frequently happening at the time of ripening,
occasions the rotting and bursting of the Fruit. Though the natural
Causes of these Impediments may not presently be accounted for,
yet it is to be hoped that Time and an assiduous Application, will
obviate these inclement Obstructions of so beneficial a Manufacture
as the making of Wine may prove.
P I N U S.
There are in Carolina four Kinds of Pine-Trees, which are
there distinguished by the Names of
The Pitch-Pine is the largest of all the Pine-Trees, and
mounts to a greater Height than any of them; its Leaves and Cones
are also larger and longer than those of the other Kinds; the Wood
is yellow, the Heart of it is so replete with Turpentine, that its
Weight exceed that of Lignum Vitae; of this Wood, therefore,
is made Pitch, Tar, Rosin, and Turpentine. The Wood is the most
durable, and of more general Use than any of the other Kinds of
Pines, particularly for Staves, Heading and Shingles, i.e. Covering
for Houses: These Trees grow generally on the poorest Land.
The Rich-land Pine is not so large a Tree, nor are its Leaves
nor Cones so long as those of the Pitch-Pine; besides, the
Wood contains much less Rosin; the Grain is of a yellowish white
Colour; the Wood of this Tree is inferior to that of the Pitch-Pine,
though it splits well, and has its peculiar Uses: These grow in
better Land than the Pitch Pine.
The Short-leav'd Pine is usually a small Tree, with short
Leaves and small Cones. It delights in middling Land, and usually
grow mixed with Oaks.
The Swamp-Pine grows on barren wet Land; they are generally
tall and large; the Cones are rather large. These Trees afford little
Rosin, but are useful for Masts, Yards, and many other Necessaries.
There is also in Carolina a Fir which is there called Spruce-Pine.
The numerous Species of the Fir and Pine which our northern Colonies
abound in, have (till of late) been little known to the Curious,
of whom no one has contributed more than my indefatigable Friend
Mr. P. Collinson, who, by procuring from the different Parts
of America a great Variety of Seeds, and Specimens of various
Kinds, has a large Fund far a complete History of this useful Tree.