Besides the Trees which are figured, there are in Carolina these
Pinus. The Pine Tree,
Abies. The Firr-Tree, many Kinds.
Acacia. The Locust Tree, two Kinds.
Tilia. The Lime-Tree.
Pavia. Scarlet flowering Horse Chesnut.
Siliquastrum. The Judas-Tree.
Fagus. The Beech-Tree.
Ulmus. The Elm-Tree.
Salix. The Willow-Tree.
Sambucus. The Elder-Tree.
Coryllus. The Hazel-Tree.
Carpinus. The Horn-beam-Tree.
The Manner of Making Tar and Pitch.
The Pitch-Pine is that from which Tar and Pitch is made, it yielding
much more Rosin than any of the other Kinds: These Trees grow usually
by themselves, with very few of any other intermixed. The dead Trees
only are converted to this Use, of which there are infinite Numbers
standing and lying along, being killed by Age, Lightning, burning
the Woods, &c. The dead Trunks and limbs of these Trees, by
Virtue of the Rosin they contain, remain found many Years after
the Sap is rotted off, and is the only Part from which the Tar is
drawn. Some Trees are rejected for having too little Heart; these
are first tried with a Chop of an Ax, whether it be Lightwood, which
is the Name by which Wood that is fit to make Tar of is called:
This Lightwood is cut in Pieces about four Foot long, and as big
as ones Leg, which with the Knots, and Limbs, are pick'd up, and
thrown in Heaps: After a Quantity sufficient to make a Kiln is thus
gathered in Heaps, they are all collected in one Heap near their
Centre, on a rising Ground, that the Water may not impede the Work.
The Lightwood being thus brought into one Heap, is split again into
smaller Pieces; then the floor of the Tar-Kiln is made in bigness
proportionable to the Quantity of the Wood; in this manner a Circle
is drawn thirty Foot diameter, more or less, the Ground between
it being laid declining, from the Edges to the Centre all round
about, sixteen Inches, more or less, according to the Extent of
the Circle. Then a Trench is dug from the Centre of the Circle to
the Edge or Rim, and continued about five or six Feet beyond it,
at the End of which a Hole is dug to receive a Barrel. In this Trench
a wooden Pipe is let in of about three Inches diameter, one End
thereof being laid so as to appear at the Centre of the Circle,
the other End declining about two Foot, after which the Earth is
thrown in, and the Pipe buried, and so remains till the Kiln is
built. Then Clay is spread all over the Circle about three Inches
thick, and the Surface made very smooth; great Care is taken to
leave the Hole of the wooden Pipe open at the Centre, that nothing
may obstruct the Tar running down from all sides into it; this done
they proceed to set the Kiln as follows, beginning at the Centre,
they pile up long Pieces of Lightwood, as close as they can be set
end-ways round the Hole of the Pipe, in a pyramidal Form, six Feet
diameter, and eight or ten Feet high, then they lay Rows of the
four Foot split Billets from the Pyramid all round the Floor to
the Edge, very close one by one, and the little Spaces between,
are filled up with the split Knots before mentioned. In this manner
all the Wood is laid on the Floor, which being made declining to
the Centre, the Wood lies so also; thus they proceed, laying the
Wood higher and higher quite round till it is raised to thirteen
or fourteen Foot projecting out, so that when finished, the Kiln
is about four or five foot broader at the Top than at the Bottom,
and is in Form of an Hay-stack before the Roof is made. Then the
short split Limbs and Knots are thrown into the middle so as to
raise it there about two Foot higher than the Sides, then the Kiln
is walled round with square earthen Turfs about three Foot thick,
the Top being also covered with them, and Earth thrown over that.
The Turfs are supported without by long Poles put cross, one End
binding on the other in an octangular Form, from the Bottom to Top,
and then the Kiln is fit to be set on Fire to draw of the Tar, which
is done in the following manner:
A Hole is opened at the Top, and lighted Wood put therein, which
so soon as the fire is well kindled, the Hole is closed up again,
and other Holes are made through the Turfs on every side of the
Kiln, near the Top at first, which draws the Fire downward, and
so by degrees those Holes are closed, and more open lower down,
and the long Poles taken down gradually, to get at the Turfs to
open the Holes. Great.