Great Care is taken in burning, to open more Holes on the Side the Wind blows on than on the other, in order to drive the Fire down gradually on all Sides: In managing this, great Skill is required, as well as in not letting it burn too quick, which wastes the Tar; and if there is not Air enough let in, it will blow, (as they call it) and often hurts the Workmen; they are likewise frequently throwing Earth on the Top, to prevent the Fire from blazing out, which also wastes the Tar. The second Day after firing, the Tar begins to run out at the Pipe, where a Barrel is set to receive it, and so soon as it is full, another is put in its Place, and so on till the Kiln runs no more, which is usually in about four or five Days; after which all the Holes in the Sides are stop'd up, and Earth thrown on the Top, which puts out the Fire, and preserves the Wood from being quite consumed, and what remains is Charcole. A Kiln of thirty Foot diameter, if the Wood proves good, and is skilfully worked off, will run about 160 or 180 Barrels of Tar, each Barrel containing 32 Gallons. The full Barrels are rolled about, every three or four Days for about twenty Days, to make the Water rise to the Top, which being drawn off, the Barrels are filled again, bunged up, and fit for Use.

In making Pitch round Holes are dug in the Earth near the Tar Kiln, five or six Feet over, and about three Feet deep; these Holes are plaistered with Clay, which when dry they are filled with Tar, and set on Fire; while it is burning it is kept continually stirring, when it is burned enough (which they often try by dropping it into Water) they then cover the Hole, which extinguishes the Fire, and before it cools it is put into Barrels. It wastes in burning about a third Part, so that three Barrels of Tar makes about two of Pitch.

No Tar is made of green Pine-trees in Carolina, as is done in Denmark and Sweden.


Besides the Descriptions of those particular Beasts inhabiting the Countries here treated of, I shall give an Account of the Beasts to general of North America.

Which are
The Panther. Monax. Beaver.
Wild-Cat. Gray Squirrel. Otter.
Bear. Gray Fox Squirrel. Water-Rat.
White Bear. Black Squirrel. House-Rat.
Wolfe. Ground Squirrel. Musk-Rat.
Buffello. Flying Squirrel. House-Mouse.
Moose Deer. Gray Fox. Field-Mouse.
Stag. Raccoon. Moles.
Fallow Deer. Opossum. Quick-hatch.
Greenland Deer. Polcat. Porkepine.
Rabbit. Wheasel. Seale.
Bahama Coney. Minx. Mouse.

These I shall divide into the four following Classes.

Beasts of a different Genus from any known in the Old World.

The Opossum.

Beasts of the same Genius, but different in Species from those of Europe, and the Old World.

The Panther. Gray Squirrel.
Wild-Cat. Gray-Fox Squirrel.
Buffello. Black Squirrel.
Moose-Deer. Ground Squirrel.
Stag. Flying Squirrel.
Fallow Deer. Polcat.
Gray Fox. Porkepine.



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