jury received by hard Weather. On the opposite Shore were only
Fig-trees of a very small Size, occasioned by their being often
killed to the Ground.
Yet this is not so remarkable as that the same Kind of Tree will
not endure the Cold of Carolina Five Miles distant from the
Sea, so well as at Acomack, tho' five or six Degrees North
Many, or most Part of the Trees and Shrubs in Carolina,
retain their Verdure all Winter, tho' in most of the low and herbacious
Plants, Nature has required a Respite; so that the Grass, and what
appears on the Ground, looks withered and rusty, from October
Of the Soyl of Carolina.
The whole Coast of Florida, particularly Carolina,
is low, defended from the Sea by Sand-banks, which are generally
two or three hundred Yards from low Water Mark, the Sand rising
gradually from the Sea to the Foot of the Bank, ascending to the
Height of fourteen or sixteen Foot. These Banks are cast up by the
Sea, and serve as a Boundary to keep it within its Limits. But in
Hurricanes, and when strong Winds set on the Shore, they are then
overflowed, raising innumerable Hills of loose Sand further within
Land, in the Hollows of which, when the Water subsides, are frequently
left infinite Variety of Shells, Fish, Bones and other refuse of
the Ocean. The Sea on these Coasts seldom makes any suddain or remarkable
Revolution, but gets and loses alternately and gradually.
A Grampus cart on the Shore of North Edisto River, sixteen
Feet long, I observed was in less than a Month covered with Sand.
Great Winds often blow away the Sand two or three Feet deep, and
expose to View, Numbers of Shells and other Things, that has lain
buried many Months, and sometimes Years.
At Sullivans Island, which is on the North Side of the
Entrance of Charles Town Harbour, the Sea on the West Side
has so incroached (tho' most defended, it being on the contrary
Side to the Ocean) that, it has gained in three Years Time, a Quarter
of a Mile laying prostrate, and swallowing up vast Pine, and Palmeto-Trees.
By such a Progress, with the Assistante of a few Hurricanes, it
probably, in some few Years may wash away the whole lsland, which
is about six Miles in circumference.
At about half a Mile back from the Sand-banks before-mentioned,
the Soyl begins to mend gradually, producing Bays, and other Shrubs;
yet 'till at the Distance of some Miles, it is very sandy and unfit
for Tillage, lying in small Hills, which appear as if they had been
formerly some of those Sand-Hills formed by the Sea, too' now some
Miles from it.
Most of the Coast of Florida and Carolina, for many
Miles within Land, consists of low Islands, and extensive Marshes,
divided also by innumerable Creeks and narrow muddy Channels, thro'
which only Boats, Canoes, and Periagua's can pass.
These Creeks, or rather Gutters, run very intricately through the
Marshes, by which in many Places a Communication is necessitated
to be cut from one Creek to another, to shorten the Passage, and
avoid those tedious Meanders.
These inland Passages are of great Use to the inhabitants, who
without being exposed to the open Sea, travel with Safety in Boats
and Pceriagura's; yet are sometimes necessitated to cross
some Rivers and Sounds, eight or ten Miles wide, or go far about.
The further Parts of these Marshes from the Sea, are confined by
higher Lands, covered with Woods, through which by Intervals, the
March extends in narrow straits higher up the Country, and
contracts gradually as the Ground rises: These upper Tracts of Marsh-Land,
by their advantageous Situation, might with small Expense be drained
and make excellent Meadow-Land, the Soyl being exceeding good. But
so long as such spacious Tracts of higher Lands lie uncultivated,
and continue of no other Use than for their Cattle to range in,
such Improvements are like to he neglected, and the Marshes, which
is a considerable Part of the Country, remain of little or no Use.
The Soyl of Carolina is various, but that which is generally
cultivated consisists principally of three Kinds, which are distinguished
by the Names of Rice Land, Oak and Hiccory Land,
and Pine barren Land: Rice Land is most valuable,
though only productive of that Grain, it being too wet for any thing
else. The Scituation of this Land is various, but always low, and
usually at the Head of Creeks and Rivers, and before they are cleared
of Wood are called Swamps, which being impregnated by the
Washings from the higher Lands, in a Series of Years are become
vastly rich, and deep of Soyl, consisting of a sandy Loam of a dark
brown Colour. These Swamps, before they are prepared for Rice, are
thick, over-grown with Underwood and lofty Trees of mighty Bulk,
which by excluding the Sun's Beams, and preventing the Exhalation
of three stagnating Waters, occasions the Land to be always wet,
but by cutting down the Wood is partly evaporated, and the Earth
better adapted to the