End Notes

*Click on the numbers to return to the essays.


[1] E.L. Godkin, "The Comic-Paper Question," Reflections and Comments, 1865-1895. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1895) 29-39; The John-Donkey ran from January to October 1848, Momus from April to July 1860, Mrs. Grundy from July to September 1865. American Humor Magazines and Comic Periodicals, 1987.

[2] Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988) 1-22.

Image: detail from "The Appomattox of the Third Termers," by Joseph Keppler (Puck #171).

Part I

[1] Werner Hoffman, Caricature from Leonardo to Picasso. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1957) 16.

[2] Hoffman, 25.

[3] Hoffman, 15.

[4] Ralph E. Shikes, The Indignant Eye: The Artist as Social Critic in Prints and Drawings from the Fifteenth Century to Picasso. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969) 13-17.

[5] Shikes, 10.

[6] Stephen Hess and Milton Kaplan, The Ungentlemanly Art: A History of American Political Cartoons. (New York: MacMillan, 1975) 52.

[7] Roger A. Fischer, Them Damned Pictures: Explorations in American Cartoon Art. (North Haven CT: Archon Books) 1996. The mythic nature of the Nast's anti-Tweed cartoons is thoroughly analyzed in the first chapter of this book.

[8] Hess 93-94; Morton Keller, The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast. (London: Oxford UP, 1968) 12-13.

[9] Allan Nevins and Frank Weitenkampf, A Century of Political Cartoons: Caricature in the United States from 1800 to 1900. (New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1944) 118.

[10] Nevins, 134.

[11] Richard Samuel West, "Laughing in German: A Short History of Puck, Illustrirtes Humoristisches Wochenblatt (1876-1898)." Inks (1996): 17.

[12] Nevins, 134.

[13] Richard Samuel West, Satire on Stone: The Political Cartoons of Joseph Keppler. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1988) 9.

[14] West, Satire on Stone, 8.

[15] Joseph Schaffer, Carl Schurz: Militant Liberal. (Evansville, WI: Antes Press, 1930).

Images: "A Captain of Pope Urban VII," by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Hoffman 15); "Passional Christi und Antichristi," by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1521 (Shikes 14); "Join or Die," by Benjamin Franklin, 1754 (Hess 52); detail from "A Group of Vultures Waiting for the Storm to Blow Over-- Let Us Prey," by Thomas Nast, 1871 (Keller, The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast, fig. 123); detail from the masthead to St. Louis Puck, by Joseph Keppler, 1871 (West, Satire on Stone, 36).

Part II

[1] Morton Keller, Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America. (Cambridge: Belknap of Harvard UP, 1977) 242.

[2] H.Wayne Morgan, "Toward National Unity," The Gilded Age. ed. H. Wayne Morgan. (Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1970) 3.

[3] Ari Hoogenboom, Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865-1883. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1961) 4.

[4] Keller, Affairs, 245.

[5] Hoogenboom, 5.

[6] Keller, Affairs, 256.

[7] Keller, Affairs, 267.

[8] Hoogenboom, 50-51.

[9] Keller, Affairs, 261.

[10] Hoogenboom, 111; John G. Sproat, The Best Men: Liberal Reformers in the Gilded Age. (New York: Oxford UP, 1968) 261.

[11] Hoogenboom, 114.

[12] Morton Keller, The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast. (London: Oxford UP, 1968) 71.

[13] Gerald W. McFarland, Mugwumps, Morals & Politics, 1884-1920. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1975) 11.

[14] Sproat, vii.

[15] Sproat, 7.

[16] Hoogenboom, 193.

[17] Keller, Affairs, 269.

[18] Sproat, 47.

[19] Hoogenboom, ix.

[20] Hoogenboom, 192.

[21] McFarland, 184.

[22] Robert R. Roberts, "Popular Culture and Public Taste," The Gilded Age, 282.

[23] Sproat, 67; Keller, Affairs, 271.

[24] Mary Cable, Top Drawer: High Society from the Gilded Age to the Roaring Twenties. (New York: Atheneum Press, 1984) 52.

[25] Sproat, 277.

[26] Sproat, 47.

[27] Walter E. Burdick, Jr., "Elite in Transition: From Alienation to Manipulation," diss., Northern Illinois University, 1969. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1974) 44.

Images: detail from "Satan, Don't Get Thee Behind Me!"-- Anything to Get Possession," by Thomas Nast, 1872 (Keller, Thomas Nast, fig. 51); detail from "To the Chicago Convention," by Joseph Keppler (Puck #168).

Part III

[1] The German community's support of Puck v2.1 is described in West, "Laughing in German"; Circulation rates are listed in Sloane, American Humor Magazines and Comic Periodicals, 226.

[2] Sloane, xv.

[3] West, "Laughing in German," 20.

[4] West, Satire on Stone, 73; Roberts, 277.

[5] Thomas C. Blaisdell, et al. The American Presidency in Political Cartoons 1776-1976. (Berkeley: University Art Museum Press, 1976) 14.

[6] Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1865-1885. (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1938) 259.

[7] Fischer, 122.

[8] Levine, 4.

[9] Rebecca Edwards, "Gender in American Politics, 1880-1900," diss, University of Virginia, 1995, 21.

[10] Geoffrey Blodgett, "Reform Thought and the Genteel Tradition." The Gilded Age, 56.

[11] Sproat, 47.

Images: "An Unexpected Blow," by Joseph Keppler (Puck #157); detail from "The Political Handicap-- Who Will Ride the Democratic Entry?" by Joseph Keppler (Puck #172); "The Only Baby," by James A. Wales (Puck #160); detail from "The Cinderella of the Republican Party and Her Haughty Sisters," by Joseph Keppler (Puck #188); detail from "After the Chicago Catastrophe," by Joseph Keppler (Puck 170).

The Campaign Against Grant

[1] Dixon Wecter, The Hero in America: A Chronicle of Hero-Worship. (New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1941) 323.

"Puck Wants a Strong Man. . ."

[1] Nevins, 128.

[2] Nevins, 128.

"The Political 'Army of Salvation'"

[1] Edward H. McKinley, Marching to Glory: The History of the Salvation Army in the United States of America, 1880-1980. (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980) 11-13.

[2] Wecter, 330.

Caricature and the Carte-de-Viste

[1] Miles Orvell, The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880-1940. (Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina Press, 1989) 75.

[2] Roger A. Fischer, Tippecanoe and Trinkets Too: The Material Culture of American Presidentail Campaigns, 1828-1984. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988) 302.

[3] Barbara McCandless, "The Portrait Studio and the Celebrity," Photography in Nineteenth-Century America. ed. Martha A. Sandweiss. (Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum, 1991) 49, 55.

[4] Alan Trachtenberg, "Photography: Emergence of a Keyword," Photography in Nineteenth-Century America, 26.

"Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop"

[1] Roberts, 276.

Introduction | A Brief History of Cartoons | Mainstream & Elite Political Culture | A Popular Medium
"Our National Dog Show" | The Campaign Against Grant | Caricature and the Carte-de-Viste | "Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop"
End Notes | Cartoon Archive | Bibliography